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Case Study Of The Success Of Tesco Amidst Covid-19 Assignment Sample

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Case Study Of The Success Of Tesco Amidst Covid-19 Assignment Sample

Chapter 1: Introduction

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1.1 Research Background

It has long been accepted that "leadership" is defined as the ability to influence others to take action in a certain direction. The word "leadership" has been used in a variety of situations and businesses throughout history. Nicola et al. (2020) argue that a person's ability to display leadership qualities is impacted by the present circumstances and surroundings in which he or she finds himself or herself. People will support an organisation if they believe it would aid them in achieving their own goals and objectives; otherwise, they will lose interest. A person is considered to be in a leadership position when he or she has the ability to influence the desires or abilities of others. According to Chamakiotis, Panteli, and Davison, leadership is characterised by an unequal distribution of power between the leader and members of the organisation (2021).

Members of a group are frequently less influential than those who hold leadership positions. What leaders do is characterised by the practises to which they commit their attention and time, according to Windsor et al. (2020). A person’s ability to lead is intangible. Even while some leaders are blessed with a natural talent for leadership, that anyone can learn how to become a better leader via education and practice. Self-awareness and training may help employees have a greater influence on the team, which can have a direct impact on your team’s productivity. As per Harris, A. and Jones (2020), business and non-profit leaders are feeling the effects of the coronavirus epidemic. The COVID-19 crisis continues to ripple throughout the retail business more than a year after it swept around the world. Closed physical shops and quick expansion of internet sales have had direct ramifications for retailers, such as food and clothes stockpiles. As consumer behaviours and corporate practices evolve, this may alter. Changing consumer attitudes and behaviour are putting pressure on team performance, and excellent leadership is essential to guide the transformation. Consequently, the focus of this research will be on identifying whether or whether b leadership enabled the COVID- 19’s impact on team performance. So, the research focuses on the influence of leadership on the growth of Tesco Plc’s team members.

1.2 Research aim and Objectives

“The research will aim to understand the impact of leadership on business team performance in MNCs. To be precise, the research will focus on the success of a large retail firm like Tesco in the time of COVID-19”.

  • “To examine the key theories and concepts regarding leadership and team performance”.
  • “To explore the leadership and team performance challenges during a crisis like COVID-19.”
  • “To evaluate strategies for leading amidst a crisis, building team high-performance teams, with a particular focus on Tesco”.

1.3 Research Rationale

The contemporary world requires a broad variety of talents and resources from a varied collection of people in order to satisfy its many different demands. As a result, the importance of teamwork and leadership development is so high. Consequently, it’s possible that the leader may be charged with helping to shape the company’s future. Business and non-profit leaders are feeling the effects of the coronavirus epidemic. Pandemic has impacted practically all firms and their employees. Retailers are still reeling from the impact of the COVID-19 disaster more than a year after it was first reported. Closed physical shops and quick expansion of internet sales have had direct ramifications for retailers, such as food and clothes stockpiles. As consumer behaviours and corporate practices evolve, this may alter (Dirani et al., 2020). A shift in consumer attitudes and behaviour is putting a strain on team performance, and excellent leadership is essential to guide the transformation. 

It will thus be examined to see whether the COVID-19’s impact on team performance could have been achieved if the leadership had been successful enough. As a result, this study also aims to fill the knowledge vacuum left by previous studies on the subject, in order to better address the situation at hand. Since the organizations are undergoing a lot of changes owing to cope up with the pandemic situations, the importance of effective leadership has become critical to run the organizations smoothly. This study is justified as the study helps identify the challenges as well as provides effective recommendations for effective team working in crisis situations.

1.4 Research Questions

The research serves to answer the following research questions:

Q1. “How the changes after COVID-19 have affected the team performance of MNCs?”

Q2. “How the leaders in retail companies are influencing business teams to thrive amidst COVID-19?”

1.5 Research Significance

Highly successful teams don’t just arise out of thin air; they are the result of much work and sacrifice on the part of the team members. Since last year, retail’s success formula has shifted, and those that don’t adapt rapidly risk getting left behind.” Assuming this study is effective in its goals, it will give industry professionals and specialists with the information they need to successfully manage and lead their companies through any kind of crisis. Sales teams may well be empowered, resources made available and discussion quickly, which can enhance the entire business performance of the organization in the midst of an outbreak as a direct result of this information and its meaning (Al Saidi et al. 2020). As a result of our research, we can better understand the problems that teams face in crisis circumstances, and we can offer effective ways to overcome them. In addition, MNC managers may learn excellent leadership practices that can assist them better manage their staff in the face of unexpected situations.

It takes a lot of effort and sacrifice just on part of the team members to build a successful team. Over the last year, retail’s success formula has changed, and those that don’t adapt quickly risk being left behind.” With any luck, this research will provide industry experts and specialists with the knowledge they need to effectively lead and manage their firms through any crisis. As a direct consequence of this knowledge and its significance, sales teams may potentially be empowered, resources made accessible, and discussions promptly, which can increase the overall business performance of the firm during an epidemic (Wilson, 2020). It is possible to identify and address the issues that teams confront in crisis situations thanks to our study. As a bonus, MNC managers may acquire outstanding leadership strategies that can help them effectively manage their employees in the face of unforeseen crises.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Significance of leadership on business team performance

According to Nicola et al., (2020), leadership is described as the practice of coordinating the activities of individuals and groups to achieve a common goal. Managers that exercise effective leadership may force the reluctance of their employees to work against their interests in order to accomplish what has to be done. Here is an example of a high-risk job performed by a small team. The capacity to cope with danger is highly related to the quality of one’s leadership. Leaders’ actions have a significant influence on the composition, workflow, and efficiency within their teams. Rather than being a person or a job, “leadership is a complicated moral relationship between individuals based on trust, obligation and commitment” as well as an emotional connection and a shared vision for the future. Several other attributes or behaviours have also been used to judge leadership. Leaders often are described as having a high tolerance for impatience, charisma, an ability to inspire others, an openness to receiving criticism, and a focus on building a cohesive team. One of the most important attributes of every successful team leader is the ability to motivate his or her team members. As per Chamakiotis, Panteli and Davison (2021), compassion and integrity are two attributes that naturally come with being a team leader or that are learned via formal training and experience. Being a good leader may boost morale and productivity on the team, which in turn benefits the department as a whole. A company’s long-term success depends on its leaders, who give direction, a sense of purpose, and insight into the company’s long-term plans and objectives. Evidently, a good leader sets a clear vision of the what the company can accomplish. An effective strategy is one that provides a detailed plan of action for achieving a desired end goal.

According to Windsor et al. (2020), enhancing the organization’s competencies and competitive advantages is a major goal for executives. Leader performance become critical since it has the power to either encourage or demoralize team members, resulting in bad public services for the general public, depending on how well the leader performs (Dias and Borges, 2017). An effective leader uses the innate motivations of others around them to help others get a shared knowledge of the realities of the company and motivate them to become part. According to Paracha et al. (2012), organizational teams are more significant, and the role of the leader in steering that team is becoming increasingly vital. Leaders can’t solve problems by themselves. Leaders are frequently held to a higher standard of accountability when it comes to inspiring their subordinates. One of the most important qualities of a leader is the ability to continually motivate and support his or her subordinates (Harris, 2020). Leaders may better impact their teams by preparing them for unavoidable shifts, which have always been a part of the environment.

According to Fernandez and Shaw, (2020) theories on the phases of team growth, leadership is required at every step. However, even if all teams progress through the same stages of development and transformation at the same rate of time, they will all have different leadership styles to help them achieve success. Leaders are often held responsible for the failure of a team. For the group to succeed, everyone has to do their part, according to Bartsch et al. (2020). Rather than being a problem with individual ineptitude, as suggested by Kirchner, Ipsen and Hansen, (2021), that might be an issue with how effectively a team can work together and coordinate its efforts. The bulk of team failures may be traced back to ineffective management and monitoring. Transformative leadership has been shown to have a direct impact on team performance, according to Hai, Van and Thi Tuyet, (2021). Leaders need transformative talents, but followers don’t see much of a difference when it comes to team success. To ensure that the right people are recruited for the proper positions and that the job description and those being employed are a suitable fit, leaders play a key role. They trust their workers because they recognise how important it is to develop their workforce's potential by providing them with the necessary tools and resources to succeed.

By 2020, Deloitte's shocking research shows that 86% of employees would quit their present professions owing to lack of opportunity for growth. A well-trained workforce is more likely to remain with a firm for a long time. Creating and implementing strategic roadmaps for team members, setting SMART targets, and routinely assessing work progress are all responsibilities of leaders. Rather than being influenced or constrained by a company's work engagement or hierarchy, the emphasis is on clearly defined values and objectives that are conveyed to teams. Leaders inspire people to achieve greatness by showing their own successes and setting an example for others to follow. Based on the leadership's example, teams are urged to reinterpret current procedures A leader's role evolves as the team grows, according to Chamakiotis, Panteli, and Davison (2021). Every stage of the start-up process seems to be guided by an authoritarian leader who teaches and leads his or her crew. As a team champion, the leader of an experienced group is a mentor and coach who encourages great performance by fostering teamwork and problem solving. Effective team leadership is critical to the implementation of healthcare innovation, according to Collings et al. (2021).

The authors Dirani et al. (2020) argues that leaders in crisis situations should develop habits and attitudes that keep them from reacting too quickly to the events of the previous day and assist them instead look forward. There has been a marked improvement in certain firms’ performance, while others have been wiped out. Peacebird’s management team, for example, has considerably increased the influence of the company’s front-line salespeople (Kaul, Shah and El-Serag, 2020). Live streaming, social media advertising, and bulk buying are just a few of the ways a team may advertise their event. Employees now have access to online sales data and expertise, allowing them to monitor new formats’ performance and conversion rates. Standard operating procedures and assessments of customer-facing staff were implemented along with an online sales help system and a virtual chatbot. Conversion rates are tracked by the technology to discover the most effective ways to sell products online.

2.2 key theories and concepts regarding leadership and team performance

In the study of leadership, scholars attempt to understand why and how certain people achieve positions of power. They focus on the characteristics and behaviours that people might adopt to develop their leadership abilities. According to business experts, successful leadership requires a person to have good morals and high standards of ethics.

The Great Man theory was first. According to this belief, great leaders aren’t created; rather, they’re born with the ability to lead. Heroes and legendary figures abound in this depiction of famous leaders. “The history of the world is merely the biography of great individuals,” noted Sá and Serpa (2020) while introducing this idea to the public. Leaders of men and modelers and inventors of all that the majority of men attempted or achieved were great men. Whatever we see around us is the physical manifestation of the ideas that the Great Men who will get them into the world had inside them. As a consequence, the history of the world may be regarded to be the tale of these great men. “Great Man” was employed because at the time, leadership was seen as an exclusively masculine trait, particularly in military leadership.

Trait Theory developed because of this theory. This theory, like the Great Man theory, posits that individuals are born with specific characteristics that make them great leaders. It was hoped that trait theory would help to identify the common qualities of leaders’ personalities and behaviours. According to Starr (2020), leadership is a feature unique to exceptional people, and it cannot be learned or acquired. In the early 1900s, the emphasis of leadership studies was on characteristics. However, the supporters of this hypothesis were stumped by a conundrum. Each leader contributed additional traits to the list, which grew forever. Contradictions between personal attributes were not unusual.

In the second phase of leadership theories, Behavioural Theories were introduced. The emphasis of this leadership theory was on the behaviours of leaders, rather than on their inner selves or mental characteristics. Observation and teaching are two ways in which individuals might learn to be leaders, according to this notion. The leader’s actions were known as “leadership styles” as a result. Organizational performance was investigated by Haque (2021). They found that the group’s decision-making was influenced by three approaches, namely authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire: (project management). At Ohio State University in 1945, a team of academics found that leaders’ conduct was not influenced by their personality attributes, but rather by their ability to inspire others to follow their example. 

Leader behaviour can be explained by just two elements, according to the researchers. This pair of variables has been dubbed When a leader shows care for his or her team members’ well-being, he or she is showing consideration (“the extent to which a leader defines leader and group member roles, initiates action, organizes group activities and defines how tasks are to be accomplished by the group”). At the University of Michigan in 1947, Rensis Likert and his team of academics began conducting studies on leadership. Employee-cantered or “job-cantered” leadership styles were identified in this research as per Emans et al. (2020). Task-oriented conduct, relationship-oriented behaviour, and participatory leadership were all named as three of the most important traits of good leaders. Based on the behavioural theory, the managerial grid model is also used in management as per Ballantyne and Achour (2022)’s created the model. Based on how much the leaders care about the people they lead and how much they care about achieving their objectives, the book recommended five alternative approaches to leadership.

According to contingency theories, a leader's leadership style may be influenced by a variety of contextual factors. According to this theory, there is not a single best way to lead in each given situation. Whether a project is successful or not, is due in part to the leadership style and characteristics of those who follow it. According to Harris and Jones, (2020), who constructed a leadership spectrum with relationship orientation defined by b employee flexibility and task orientation marked by heavy use of leader power at the opposite extreme, this idea was initially put out by these two individuals in 1957. As a leader’s focus has shifted toward building relationships rather than completing tasks, so has his or her performance. Fiedler created a more comprehensive (and well-researched) contingency model as per Fernandez and Shaw (2020). Models like this one acknowledge that different contexts need different leadership styles. The two extremes of leadership behaviour—one focused on tasks, the other on interpersonal relationships—were seen as two ends of a continuum. Leaders may be classified into one of the four styles by Fiedler, who also established an assessment tool.

Situational theories posit that leaders pick the optimum course of action depending on the context in which they operate. Decision-making may need the use of different leadership styles. Hersey and Blanchard proposed this theory according to Fernandez and Shaw (2020). There is no one “best” style of leadership, according to the situational leadership theory. The most effective leaders were those who were able to adjust their leadership style to the issue at hand. The success of a leader’s efforts relied on more than just the individual or group he or she was attempting to influence; it also hinged on the task at hand.

Transactional theories, often known as management theories, emphasize the importance of leadership, planning, and teamwork in achieving goals. According to these beliefs, effective leadership requires the implementation of a system of incentives and penalties. Dr. Burns was a leading proponent of this hypothesis as per White (2021). The manager was given the chance to lead the team, and the team decided to follow his direction in order to achieve a predefined objective in return for something else. This is known as the Transactional Leadership hypothesis. When production did not meet objectives, the leader was granted authority to assess, reprimand, and teach his or her employees, and to reward those who performed well. These leaders set clear expectations for their followers, rewarding them when those goals were met and harshly punishing those who failed to do so as per Rosa, Schlak and Rushton (2020).

Relationship theories, another name for transformational theories, emphasize the bonds built between leaders and those they lead. Transformational leaders instilled a sense of purpose in their teams by helping them see the bigger picture. These leaders were concerned with the group’s success, but they also hoped that each member would realize their full potential. Leaders using this kind of leadership style tend to have b moral and ethical ideals. The transforming technique’s proponent Javed and Chattu (2020), observed that individuals and organizations’ lives were transformed as a result of the strategy. Employees’ perspectives and ideals were reshaped, as were their goals and objectives. This idea was expanded upon by Brazeau (2020), who outlined the psychological factors that underlay both transformative and transactional leadership style. He proposed how transformational leadership might be assessed, as well as how it influenced the motivation and performance of the people it was leading.

2.3 leadership and team performance challenges in retail owing to Covid-19

Leaders in business and government are feeling the effects of the coronavirus outbreak. Workers and other stakeholders are concerned about the humanitarian impact of COVID-19. Executives are finding it challenging to respond to the epidemic's sheer scope and unpredictability. "landscape-scale crisis." is a better term for this pandemic. Ballantyne and Achour state the following: (2022), A sequence of large-scale and rapid-fire events that produce great perplexity, culminating in a sensation of disorientation and intense emotional distress. Acknowledging the existence of a problem is the first step towards addressing it. As Emans et al. note, crises that do not come out of nowhere might be difficult to deal with, particularly if they are not unexpected but rather emerge from established situations that obscure their true character (2020). Examples of such situations include the SARS epidemic of 2002–03 and the current coronavirus pandemic of 2013. Leadership must overcome the normality bias to recognise a slow-developing catastrophe, which may cause them to underestimate both the likelihood of a crisis and the potential damage.

In the event of an emergency, leaders have the option of reacting immediately. When faced with an emergency, however, individuals are unable to react the same way as they would in a normal situation, by following pre-planned procedures. Effective answers to crises are said to be spontaneous, since they are led by the unfamiliarity and uncertainty that characterise the situation (2020). There are a variety of options, ranging from short-term changes (such as laws allowing employees to work from home) to more long-term changes to business practises (like the adoption of new technologies to facilitate cooperation). In the case of a crisis, leaders need the habits and attitudes that keep them from responding to yesterday's events, not a prepared reaction plan. Our goal in writing this essay is to provide leaders with the information and resources they will need to deal with the coronavirus outbreak and any other potential dangers that may crop up.

According to Fernandez and Shaw (2020), a top-down approach to crisis management is not capable of long-term stability. The command-and-control organisation of a normal corporation may effectively manage operations by adopting a planned reaction to regular occurrences. Leaders, on the other hand, are confronted with problems they do not fully comprehend at times of crisis. According to Wellons et al., this means that the top executives of a business are unable to respond swiftly and effectively when a crisis arises (2020). Leaders may be able to successfully mobilise their organisations by creating clear goals and enabling their people to discover and execute solutions that achieve these objectives. Leadership may create a network of teams to facilitate quick issue solving and execution under high stress conditions.. Despite the fact that the term "network of teams," is well-known, just a few firms have successfully implemented one. People in a network of teams work together in the same way they do in a single team's environment because they share a common goal.

As stated by White in 2021, certain members of the network engage in activities that are not directly connected to their core industry. For example, some companies are looking for ways to help their workers adapt more quickly to new work rules in the event of an emergency. Workers' safety, supply chain stability, consumer engagement, and financial stress testing are all responsibilities of the nerve centre of an integrated network.

Successive teams' networks, according to Rosa, Schlak, and Rushton (2020), show a range of characteristics irrespective of their functional scopes. Because of the increased complexity they bring, crises demand the involvement of experts from other fields. They have been designed to do their job well. It is up to the experts to collect data, come up with ideas, put those solutions into action, and refine them along the way. It is flexible, too; teams may grow or shrink in size depending on how well they understand the issue and how it is evolving. By Javed and Chattu (2020), leaders must create an atmosphere of candour and cooperation among their employees. Showing how teams should function in terms of authority distribution and information exchange helps to accomplish this. Leaders tend to centralise decision-making power and restrict access to information during times of crisis, delivering it to only those who really need it. It is critical to do the opposite in order to sway groups.

Creating a psychologically safe work atmosphere where employees may freely express their thoughts, questions, and concerns is also a leader's job, according to Brazeau (2020). This is particularly important during times of crisis. Consequently, the topic and the network's approach to dealing with it are the subject of a fruitful discussion.

As stated by Chamakiotis, Panteli, and Davison (2021), they must make sure decision-making for crisis response is delegated to the proper individuals, especially senior executives. To avoid paralysis, decision-makers must be able to promptly detect and remedy errors. Senior executives must decide who will be in charge of responding to a crisis. Every time a crisis is faced, a new leadership team is put in place, but these leaders are not necessarily top execs in the organisation. Organizational leaders' competency is a critical asset, according to Windsor and colleagues (2020). amid extraordinary, landscape-scale disasters it is hard to underestimate the impact of character. Teams must work together to achieve a unified goal and ask probing questions to guide their research in crisis response leadership. Best-in-class performers have a wide variety of attributes to their credit. Deliberate calmness, for example, implies the ability to sit back and assess events objectively while still planning forward. 6 They are more likely to display deliberate calm when they are grounded in reality and have an attitude of humility, but not helplessness.

2.4 Strategies for Building high-performance teams

Numerous companies have had to modernise their business practices and routines in order to remain competitive and successful in today's global marketplace. Cloud computing has made it unnecessary for businesses to keep their own servers, software, and hardware infrastructures inside their own offices when it comes to the virtualization of organisations and the digital transformation of labour relations. A growing number of tasks may now be done out using personal computers, laptops, and mobile devices connected to an ever-faster Internet (Harris, 2020). This is possible because of virtualization technology. Online job training has had an influence on human resources' perception of cloud technology and its function in software as a service application, according to recent research (SaaS). Increasingly, both physical and human resources are being virtualized since workers no longer need to be present in the same place. It is a huge challenge for modern electronic leadership of geographically dispersed teams of collaborators.

Global or regional specialists who did not have enough time to travel to fulfil the particular tasks of projects may build virtual teams that would improve collaborative invention and creativity. Because of the growth of virtual cooperation, online collaboration is now a viable option for national corporations as well as more organic global or regional enterprises. The notion of VT (virtual teamwork) is based on the use of collaborative information and communication technologies (ICTs) by workers from diverse physical locations, as stated by Wood et al (2020). It has been progressively increasing in popularity over the last two decades because of digital technology's development and maturity. This is owing to the rapidity with which data can be sent, the processing capacity of computers, and the ease with which digital natives (those born after 1990) and digital migrants (those born before 1990) can adjust to working with information and communications technologies (born before 1990).

Because of the low maturity level of virtual teams during the dawn of the twenty-first century, organisations were sceptical about the efficacy of this method of working. According to study done in the early 2000s, VTs had a significant failure rate. Things had not gotten any better by that point either. There were a number of issues with virtual teams when they initially appeared in 2004. Many participants in a second poll by Harris, A. and Jones (2020) reported that virtual communication was less successful than in person, and that half of the respondents said they were puzzled and overwhelmed by the technology of cooperation. As technology advanced and organisations expanded with the use of ICT tools, these early findings from the beginning of the century were no longer considered legitimate. Virtual teams that are well-managed may outperform face-to-face teams in terms of productivity, according to a 2009 study. Virtual or scattered team collaboration has been proven in a number of studies to enhance staff productivity as well. As a result, the question of whether or not a virtual team may outperform a physical one must be raised: Research on input factor models and their connections with other variables has been summarised into socioemotional and task-oriented processes, and finally their connections with output factors have been produced to generate the answer.

It is also worth mentioning that teleworking is the antecedent to the aforementioned triggers for virtualization of organisational life and digital transformation of processes. Nevertheless, according to Dirani et al. (2020), some effective team building models are being utilized by varied businesses. For instance, for more than 40 years, the IPO model has been one of the most widely used frameworks to describe collaborative effectiveness. It covers the team makeup, structure, and operations. IPO model argues that team structure is controlled by organisational and situational circumstances, which in turn influence input, process, and output. While, it has been argued that the IPO models fail to distinguish between different sorts of processes and results. This has led to widespread criticism of the IPO model, which fails to recognise the temporal and recursive components of team development and feedback, as well as its unitary and simple presentation of team dynamics. Consequently, Alternative models for contemporary businesses’ complicated teamwork have emerged as a result of such critique. As per the statement of Al Saidi et al. (2020), team loafing can be another strategy that are used by corporations, Teams are not always successful because they run across problems that hamper their ability to function productively. Some individuals are more productive while working alone, but others are more productive when working with others in a group. Social loafing, or the Ringlemann effect, refers to this inclination. Fernandez and Shaw, (2020) argues that leaders are often urged to retain small groups and specify each employee’s share of responsibility. Peer pressure to perform is expected to increase as a result of this strategy. Individual performance objectives should be made plain and detailed, and awards should be tied directly to an individual’s contributions.

2.5 Literature Gap

The literature gives a significant insight to how some key theories and concepts entails to team performance and leadership as well as challenges that businesses are facing as well as strategies for building teams and improve performance during this covid crisis. Yet with all these insights in context the literature does not identifies the issues on particular organization that is in question. This research will thus need to develop its analytics on contextual business Tesco to derive specific insight on the subject concerned.

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

3.1 Chapter Overview

This chapter describes the methodology and research methods used to investigate how it influence the leadership for corporate team performance in MNC. This section explains and evaluates the procedures utilized to get the samples and the equipment used to get the attention it deserves. Methods for data analysis were also discussed in this chapter for the type of information obtained and the research approach.

3.2 Research Design

It is a process for collecting, analysing, interpreting, and distributing data. There are quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) research designs. A qualitative approach is a subjective research method that involves a natural and interpretive strategy in which data is typically gathered through interviews. Because statistical processes are unbiased and often entail obtaining quantifiable data in the form of numbers, they may be used to evaluate hypotheses in quantitative design. Further, the change in team performance amidst the Covid-19 contagion can be considered qualitative, given that it arises from workers’ behavior toward team performance (Kawaguchi, Kodama and Tanaka, 2021). It is the measurement through survey questions has been conducted. However, this has not been proven for in-depth evidence since thematic analysis data is provided to designate for spectacles. Rather it does not provide an inclusive thoughtful like in the case of exploratory studies, how the study has been adopted based on a qualitative approach to understanding the connection that excites the leadership on the business of team performance in MNCs.

Further, the research design for thematic analysis has also been conducted where thematic analysis is a method for analysing qualitative data. For example, a transcript is a compilation of texts which may or may not include a transcript or an interview. The researchers scanned the data for repeating patterns like subjects, ideas, and major structures.

Moreover, an investigative study was conducted to understand the influence of leadership on the success of business teams in multinational corporations. Consequently, the study’s investigator included the impact of leadership on the performance of business teams in MNCs among the participants in their findings (Edmondson, Matthews and Ward, 2019). The exploratory study’s goal was to acquire information in this area. The advantage of qualitative research is that it helps researchers learn more about how executives’ self-efficacy influences their leadership style. The problem with “qualitative research is that it is” susceptible for scholar prejudice.

3.3 Sample Size

The sample pondered is the study of workers in Tesco UK and 10 in number. A sample size of 10 for a qualitative survey was an appropriate number since qualitative studies do not contend with the number of respondents of the target population as not. Qualitative surveys that are candied to explain and explore phenomena more in-depth tend to discover new constructs, themes, and connections. However, the sample of 10 was diverse, provided that the people or executive of the sample was drawn from different Tesco retail chains. Further, it involves 10 survey questions that answer several survey questions to reach a threshold level. Further in eases the saturation often asked for the survey as the point when no new data has been resolved by further gathering evidence as the equation that was asked has been eschewed by stating qualitative survey question

3.4 Sampling Technique

The sample recognized in this type was workers drawn from the business operating in the UK. The sample size was about 10 workers who were recognized based on convincing sampling provided that they were recognized by using a friend and family connection. Hence workers outside the UK regions or other nations were not sampled. Specifically, the firms of Tesco retail chain ware, in particular, were considered the situation since the industry has a feature for providing the quality of service (Wang and Gutierrez, 2018). Further, for the client, because the change management might have both positive and negative impacts on team performance, other factors. However, it can be best attained when the Tesco worker communicates better. Hence the retail sector was sufficient to recognize for standing of team perforce in this context. Analysis of the impact of leadership on the business team performance in the MNC survey was conducted using many qualitative questions. Further, the demographic of the sample was also confided, which is indicated in the table below.

Workers (Participants)


Number of the year as a worker in Tesco


Worker 1


2 years

Tesco Supermarket

Worker 2


1 year

Tesco Supermarket

Worker 3


5 years

Tesco Supermarket

Worker 4


3 years

Tesco Supermarket

Worker 5


6 months

Tesco Supermarket

Worker 6


5 years

Tesco Supermarket

Worker 7


14 years

Tesco Supermarket

Worker 8


2.5 years

Tesco Supermarket

Worker 9


1 year

Tesco Supermarket

Worker 10



Tesco Supermarket

3.5 Data Collection

Because this was an experimental study, no survey data was employed. They opted to conduct interviews as part of the research because they wanted to understand the respondents’ experiences. Depending on the topic, the interview lasted between 40 and 60 minutes. A lot of time was provided to the interviewer to react to queries. The venue of the interview. To prevent unpleasant interruptions, they sat in a quiet area for the interview. Information flow and re-collection. The interviewer was an important element of the discussion. Investigating or obtaining data required responding to survey questions demanding that interviewees elaborate on their statements or provide proof to support their allegations. In fact, in a face-to-face qualitative data session, each sample was also asked questions about the influence of leadership on the success of MNC business teams. This method of gathering opinions provided insight and information into the subject. Self-leadership experiences of workers (more for experiences) and the effects on team performance (van Dorssen-Boog et al., 2020). Moreover, meetings were also expected to collect the various management opinions on the situation for outstanding leadership abilities for team performance in Tesco. The questions are intended to gather accurate and useful data. Self-direction and self-questions were already formed before the questions were asked. 

Survey questions were used to collect supervisors’ opinions on their work competencies and leadership attributes. A person’s attitude, identity, ability, and qualifications are essential considerations. During the survey, several questions were posed. Introductions were given initially, followed by a discussion of the basic surveying criteria (Corposanto and Molinari, 2019). The interrogator remained silent throughout the questioning, allowing the subject to respond freely and independently. Interference or prejudice against the author. Several questions were asked of the participants throughout the interviews. They also asked some questions and demanded clarifications, suggesting they wanted to learn more about the situation.

Consequently, they can deliver correct information due to their questions. The Importance of performing a needs analysis collects more exact data, analyze interviews, and looks for alternative hypotheses. As a consequence, the viewpoints of the survey were improved.

3.6 Data Analysis method

Qualitative and thematic surveys produce "qualitative data," and the "mentor" for assessing the qualitative data may vary from the mentor for analysing the qualitative data. Thematic analysis was used to investigate qualitative data. As a rule, primary and secondary data collecting are the most important approaches. In light of the present circumstances, the primary data collection would be better suited to acquire both qualitative and quantitative data kinds, which are necessary for the sector to deal with the issue (van den Akker et al., 2021). Qualitative data is required to measure the prevalence of certain traits or features. It simplifies the creation of variables that may be used to track bigger data sets for researchers. Individuals can assess their living environment using qualitative data. Qualitative data may assist a marketing investigator in determining who their target market is, what hurdles and challenges they encounter, and where they should focus their efforts to solve problems or concerns. Getting information from previously unavailable sources is part of collecting data from numerous sources other than one’s own experiences. Primary data is extremely precise and customized to the study’s goals. To satisfy the needs of a certain topic or research, primary data is developed or chosen. To choose which online or offline resource is ideal for the survey or research, first describe the purpose of the survey or study and the population to be polled or studied.

3.7 Reliability and Validity

The data gathering instrument’s ability repeatability gives the same results in the same scenario) The validity denotes for facts gathering equipment’s ability to detect what it was designed to test (Rose and Johnson, 2020). The results of the report are double-checked for correctness by the investigator. Ensured that the items on the questionnaire were customized to the individual’s individuality and came from various sources. These were assessed in prior research.

Moreover, the validity of a survey is determined by how thoroughly it investigates the data it promises to obtain. Validity is crucial because it helps researchers choose which survey items to use, ensuring that they investigate the right issues. Primary data collection methods’ validity and reliability refer to the categories of the two principal data collection methods (Mazhar et al., 2021). Determining one of the two basic data gathering methods is facilitated by establishing the parameters.

Chapter 4: Findings

4.1 Thematic Analysis

In this analysis, the method is for the investigation of the qualitative data. It is generally applied to a set of text like a survey or the transcripts. The investigator close analyses the data they are recognized to identify the common themes for the topic, ideas, and patterns for meaning which might come up repeatedly. Individuals and businesses teach us about performance management almost every day. This application may talk about their goals, make financial strategies, and track their business’s progress over time. All executives have responsibilities to ensure that employees contribute to the firm (Santoro et al., 2020). It will be a success for both the employee and the firm if the organization has a clear plan, and it will be able to outperform and eliminate competitors (A lack of outcomes may cause a management brand to shift).

Tesco is one of the retail organizations that has improved its success rate by implementing b performance management and leadership practices. After being founded in London in 1919, it began producing its line of products in 1924. Since the beginning, they’ve provided food, clothing, and cash management. This company is rated second in terms of revenue. “According to Tesco (2019), the UK generates about £6000 in income per minute”. However, Tesco’s financial prognosis in 2010 was bleak, resulting in a decrease in owner value. Gross profit, return on capital, dividends, and stock prices all fell from one year to the next. Tesco’s consequences include the possibility of a deficit (TESCO, 2022).

Tesco’s Preliminary Outcomes for the year 2021/22 have championed great value for the clients who deliver b performance during the post-pandemic period (See Appendix 1). Next, an b sales performance would lead to retail free cash that would flow ahead of expectation (See Appendix 2).

Further, the thematic analysis would assess the episode for tit quantitively and qualitative approach by targeting their customer portion where team performance had a huge impact on Tesco’s success during the challenging period of Covid 19. As a result, it has the highest brand value.

The value perception, which outperformed the market during the beginning of Covid-19 and now improved, and the UK online share for the Tesco store had gained over 200.

The priority in coping with Covid-19 specific issues would be to protect personnel and customers, assist the vendors, and maintain the food supply. They’re working closely with each region’s government and public health authorities to ensure we are helping in any manner they can while staying within all applicable rules (Aday and Aday, 2020).

Three significant concerns were addressed to the team, one of which was felt particularly bly inside the British Isles. The first is a substantial change in their clients’ purchasing habits. Second, the virus’s impact on firm teammates, and third, as assessed by the UK government, support society’s most vulnerable members.

In the first few weeks of a crisis, fury buying exhausted for available supplies (“30 percent rise in the cost of foodstuffs”).

The firm has experienced a big absence of colleagues due to the size and structure of the workforce. It has comprehensive colleague illness insurance in place, and the firm has engaged over “45,000 associates in the UK in the last two weeks alone” (Rosnizam et al., 2020).

Firms cannot meet the requirements of the whole market, even though they have raised their capacity for grocery delivery by more than 20% and will continue to do so. Between 85 and 90 percent of all food merchants will participate.(Awadari and Kanwal, 2019). Importantly, during the qualitative, any gender is a key factor, and its diversity in Tesco is part of it. Diversity plays a supporting role in working in a team and might enhance the team’s performance. Profoundly, diversity would come with many perspectives. When the team members would bring a variety of backgrounds, cultures, and experiences, they are more likely to resolve the issues and become innovative during the crisis of Covid-19. So is, diversity is a positive aspect. Surely the other would be a better team performance, leading to success for the worker and Tesco itself (Alam and Raut-Roy, 2019). 

Lastly, communication plays a crucial role in building a b team for Tesco amid the Covid-19 situation. Employers may begin by incorporating communication into the company’s business strategy, including its mission, vision, values, strategic goals and objectives, and employer image (Wang et al., 2020).

4.2 Interview Analysis

Interviewer: What is understanding of leadership

Interviewee- Leadership is a critical management job that allows a group's resources to be managed to increase productivity and achieve its objectives. Effective leaders communicate the company's aim to employees, support them, and help them achieve it. Management refers to a person’s or a group’s ability to influence and guide members of a system or other members. Further, leadership is described as a pattern of social influence in which one individual may enlist the involvement and collaboration of others in the pursuit of a single goal. Other, more complete leadership styles have emerged as well. Leadership states the ability to lead others bringing a group of people together to achieve a similar purpose.

Interviewer: Do You think leadership is important for team performance in business? so how?

Interviewee- Effective leaders have a significant influence on not just the individuals they supervise, but also the firm as a whole. Employees who work under great leaders are more likely to be better, more productive, and more devoted to their company, which has a positive impact on the bottom line. I think that leadership is important in team performance in business by attaining your establishment's objectives and setting the tone for your staff. Leaders provide directions to all team members to guarantee that they are carrying out their duties. Successful leaders drive their staff to accomplish their best job by encouraging them to work together as a team. Further, I would say that leaders who inspire and empower have a greater ability to influence the team's actions.

Interviewer: How do you think leadership was useful for business team performance during the Covid-19 pandemic?

Interviewee- During the Covid-19 pandemic, I would think that Leaders should reject the premise that a top-down solution can bring order in a crisis. In regular situations, a typical firm's control organization may efficiently manage operations by applying a predefined reaction. Further, Top officials must be prepared to outsource some responsibilities outside of the command-and-control system to a network of teams temporarily, just as they must delegate different aspects of crisis response to others.

4.3 Survey Analysis

SQ1. What is Your Gender? 

From the above pictorial representation, it can find out that there were 50 percent male and 50 percent female in Tesco retail chain these works during the Covid-19 situation. Therefore, it interprets that gender is an important part of the demographic analysis as gender moderates the impact of socioeconomic level, community size, and firms and graduate degree holders on gender norms views. It accounts for more variation in gender norms beliefs than any other predictor. Also, workplace gender equality is needed to improve the national product and economic growth as it would help improve organization team performance.

SQ2. Which Category below Includes your Age?

The above pictorial representation shows a different age category of workers for the Tesco retail chain those who are working. About 50 percent are in the age group ranging from 26-35 years in Tesco firm, about 40% of workers range between 18 to 25. And 10% of the Tesco workers range in 36-45. It has been seen that several scientific disciplines and opinions on a large number of topics might differ between different age groups. It is an age that might be a sensitive topic for some workers, so age categorization has been used.

SQ3. How efficiently are team meetings been conducted during Covid-19?

From the above pictorial representation, it can find out that about 40% of the workers were extremely efficiently during a team meeting that was conducted during Covid-19, 30% were somewhat efficiently for a team meeting, and also remaining 30% were very much efficient for a team meeting which has been conducted during Covid-19 for Tesco worker as respondents. Of course, the team meeting during the Covid-19 situation for some workers might be challenging (those not experienced until 6 months). However, it is necessary to allow the team to discuss the complex issue and talk through ide and solutions.

SQ4. How well do members of Tesco Supermarket chain teams communicated during the Covid-19 situation with each other?

From the above pictorial representation, it can find out that 30% of worker respondents responded to the somewhat well and extremely well, and 20% worker of Tesco respondents or not so well and very well toward the team communicated during the Covid-19 situation with each other during the operation of Tesco service in a retail supermarket chain. Tesco tends to use e0mails as a vital mode of sending messages to their colleague or management for efficiently working during the Covid-19 crisis.

SQ5. During remote working do the workers face any challenges during Covid-19?

From the above pictorial representation, it can find out that 40% had respondents to yes, and the other 40% responded workers of Tesco responded no, and about 20% responded to maybe that remote working for workers at Tesco faced many challenges during Covid-19. The main problem for remote workers is network issues, electricity issues, and majorly some of the workers who are not highly skilled in working the system to make the inventory, sales report, performance report, and various administrative work.

SQ6. Do the changes after Covid-19 have impacted the team performance of MNCs?

From the above pictorial representation, it can find out that 50% of the worker responded to the yes that changes after Covid-19 would impact the team performance of the MNCs. Next, about 30% of worker response to no change would not impact the team performance of MNCs. Lastly, 20% of worker responses might have changed after covid 10 would influence the team’s performance. In response, workers have an act to ensure that team performance is constantly cultivated.

SQ7. Do the leaders in the retail firm(Tesco)are influencing the business team to thrive amidst Covid-19?

From the above pictorial representation, it can find out that mostly about 70% of response workers of Tesco said yes, leaders in the retail firm are influencing the business team to thrive amidst the Covid-19 situation. On the other hand, about 20% of respondents towards the no leaders in the retail firm do not influence the business team to thrive amidst Covid-19. And 10% responded that maybe leaders in the retail firm might influence the corporate team to thrive amidst Covid-19.

SQ8. Does the least experienced worker of Tesco need the office most during covid-19?

From the above pictorial representation, it can be found that about 60% of the worker said yes. The least experienced workers must go to the office most during Covid-19 (following the government norms of Covid-19 protocol in the workplace). Next, about 30% of workers said maybe least experienced worker of Tesco may or may not need the office most during Covid-19. Finally, about 10% have responded no least experienced worker of Tesco does not need to go to the office during covid 19. 

SQ9. Does remote work productivity fleets crisis phenomenon for Tesco during Covid-19?

From the above pictorial representation, it can find out that 60% of workers responded to yes Remo work productive fleets, the citrus phenomenon for Tesco during covid 19, and 40% responded workers said they might be remote work productive fleets crisis phenomena for Tesco during Covid-19. The finding suggests that it dissipates the concern among the doubters that working from home is less effective. Thus, most workers surveyed say their firm(Tesco) has successfully found ways to make work from home more productive.

SQ10. Do Tesco is prepared for changes in the post-pandemic job market?

From the above pictorial representation, it can be found that majorly 60% of worker responses agree that Tesco is prepared for changes in the post-pandemic job market. The remaining 30% responded neutrally as they may thin or not think that Tesco is preparing for changes in the post-pandemic job market. Also, about 10% responded that they bly disagreed with the fact. So it is that it can be seen as critical to their success and firm culture. It would be a good strategy for Tesco with a great employment brand.

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