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The study deals with the integration of research tool which is used by the research in order accomplish the objectives of the research in a large way. Beside this it deals with the usefulness of research study dealing with the data technique consisting of primary research method that are used for the interview method and for integrating survey in a large basis. The study also mentions the advantages of using the research tools which is used in increasing the quality of the research in a useful manner. Various observations in regard to the study have been also integrated within the study by mentioning the trends and changes of the Hawthorne effect. Examples of the research studies dealing with the participants observation method has been also mentioned in the study in a huge manner. The integration of direct communication has been mentioned in the study with indication of the characteristics of the qualitative tool.
Qualitative research tool
Qualitative research tools are the research tools which are used in an open-ended market segment for conversational communication. As stated by Tien et al. (2019), there are two basic laments of the research tools, why and what. What the consumer needs or thinks and why they think are basically asked in this research method. The data in this technique are descriptive in nature and have explanatory views to convey the pieces of information to other people. There are various tools and methods which are used to obtain qualitative results where descriptive and easy procedures are used. The interview method for collecting the information shows the quantitative research that depends upon questioning and surveys to collect the data. It can be concluded as a primary method of collecting the data. Interviews help to collect the data as a wide range of topics. This can be both unstructured and structured interviews. The interviews are so effective that it enables the employer to gather experience, skills and can also help to meet the requirement of job.
This is because the collected data are presented visually and manually to the users. As per the view of Cuervo-Cazurra et al. (2020), qualitative research reflects the complex phenomena, of “tracking unique or unexpected events, illuminating the experience and interpretation of events”. All these techniques are used to determine a whole structure to determine a primary research method.
Research methodology is a core part of the research, where the different modes and techniques of data are evaluated. For the primary research, the research tool required gathering the data or information is telephonic conversations, surveys, questionnaires, online surveys and interviews. Postal surveys, focus groups, observations and test marketing are the other tools that are also used in primary research. As opined by Tinh et al. (2021), the gathered data are used to hence the quality of the research study to say that the research contains few legal and real details related to the subject or topic.
The selected qualitative research tool for this task is interviewing. As per the author Hamilton and Webster (2018), it is a process of asking questions to people to see whether the interested people are suitable in the job or not. Interviews are generally taken to establish a few standards in the direct or face-to-face communication process. There are three main or basic methods that are used in these kinds of qualitative research such as “interviewing, observation and artifact analysis”. In the interviewing process, the new employees are hired by the company where the interviews are taken by the owners or any rigorous person. Interviews can be conducted in different types, preliminary interviews, face-to-face interaction, and online mode.
The usefulness of research tools
The interviewing research tools are an effective approach for conducting quantitative research. As mentioned by Hult et al. (2020), the quantitative method is applied to collect the data that is examined by the numerical data. It helps to make predictions for future and even provide the opportunity to the business to plan something useful to the business. As narrated by Ong and Djajadikerta (2019), the main type of quantitative research is the descriptive method, experimental as well as the casual’s quantitative approach. The advantages of the quantitative research are the way of allocating the data that answers various questions. The calculations are mathematical, statically etc. it helps to collect the data that are numerical. This quantitative research is cost effective and the process is also fast.
Exchanging the information between the respondents or candidates to the interviewer resembles a quick am easy process. As per the author De Vasconcellos et al. (2019), this direct exchange of skills, views, pieces of information and abilities makes the job role as well as the research more impactful than other research techniques. Through semi- structures interviewing in this study help to arrange effective interview process to make effective research. It is a two-way communication where interviewers learn about how to answer and what specific reason behind answer is. Although choosing of this research tool help to identify reason behind each participant answer which is going to provide most supportive and adequate analysis for research. Many people avoid questionnaires to answer or share their opinion on a proper topic or subject. However, the interviewing process is more effective and approachable by the people to share their beliefs and opinions related to any topic. Rich descriptions of the complicated phenomena comprise its biggest advantage in the research aspects. As narrated by Ong and Djajadikerta (2019), most the researchers use this tool to get results to raise the standards of the research reports or study. Direct communication with the respondents makes the research study more attractive and real as the information is collected from actual sources.
The benefits and limitations of the semi- structures interviewing process in primary research tools or methods are as follows.
Advantages of semi- structures interviewing process
The above-mentioned points show the beneficial aspects of the interviewing process while conducting the primary research. As opined by Skrynnikova and Grigorieva (2019), the viewpoints and personal beliefs of the people are easily extracted through this process. It is a two-way street where the interviewer asks questions to the other people to know their ability to convey the working aspects of the firm. Here, is an example that will explain both the advantages and limitations of telephonic interview process. A company is taking interview of 10 people. Out of which the company has selected only 5 people. As stated by Braun et al. (2021), the advantages of the telephonic interview are that the participants got selected as they do not have to encounter the interview. By conducting the interview, the relevant information can be gathered. Hence, here it is concluded that the interviewing process is not always good for everyone. The primary research also includes the surveys that are held online, face to face interviews and also the telephonic interviews. The main limitation of the telephonic interview also includes that it sometime can result in the non-response of the people.
Face-to-face interviews have the disadvantages that sometimes the interviewee gets discomfort while facing the interviews. It has a geographical limitation and can also need to collect vast information through surveys. The benefit is that it helps to clear the doubt immediately.
It also helps in increasing knowledge about the trends and latest implementations in the surroundings. As stated by Braun et al. (2021), in the process, the interviewee gets to know its weaknesses and other straights where they can improve them to get more opportunities in near future. In the context of the primary research asking for the intimation related to a subject emphasizes on getting huge opportunities in near future. When applicants are having same skills, the interview process classified each candidate through their personas. As opined by Jacobson and Mustafa (2019), this led to ascertaining the additional information. For employee retention, this primary research process is very effective to know the reagents and wants of the employee.
Disadvantages of semi- structures interviewing process
The aforementioned points reflect the limitations or disadvantages of the interviewing process for primary research. As per the author Vindrola-Padros et al. (2022), direct interaction led to many conflicts and biases among the people and the interviewees. If the opinions or interests are not matched with the interviewee then the chances of conflicts are more. In order to gain quick judgments, the main points or aspects were missed by the interview, because the main motive is to extract the information within the stated time remainder. As mentioned by Malmqvist et al. (2019), this primary research methodology is not only inefficient in getting results it also led to many issues that can hinder the further working aspects. Personal opinions can make the research method biased and complicated if the opinion is not matched with the interviewer.
There can be certain failures of using this research technique as it is directly collected by the informer or the participants. As narrated by Tiong and Sim (2020), the nature or mindset of people is not the same, therefore due to personal conflicts and biased opinions the results can differ from each other. This may lead to the failure of the whole research study or report. For example- an interviewer asked the participant about their skills and abilities and the interviewee responded with all the answers. Through this, the interviewer cannot predict that the skills or the abilities the interview has can lead to the success of the organisation. This unpredictable method brings negative repercussions in handling the other segments. It also forms stereotypes for the stated project where the interviewee thinks that the skills and abilities matter for getting the job. However, the fact is that the overall examinations including the qualification and skills matter.
a) Participant versus non-participant observation
An observational method is used to describe and observe the behaviour of the topic or the subject. As opined by Mackiesonet al. (2019), the researcher in this category collected the data by using the five senses of organs. Here the data are evaluated by using the subjective method where the research used its senses organs to estimate the whole data for the research study. There are various approaches to the qualitative tool that are “naturalistic observation, participant observation, structured observation, case studies, and archival research”. These approaches are used to represent the systematic analysis or representation of data that are collected through the participants. As per the view of Lemon and Hayes (2020), both the non-participant and participant observer reflects the qualitative research methods. The processes are applied in the research study where the research is active in one element and absent in the non-participant observation.
Participant versus non-participant observation shows the difference between the researcher's empirical experience and their physical presence. As per the author Marath and Toyama (2018), in the context of participant observation, it can be stated that the researcher cannot see the significance of the research as the familiar events continue to be revised. On the other hand, in non-participant observation, the researcher doesn't miss anything associated with the research purpose. In the participant observation, the observer and the observed are stated on the same side, by making the observer a group member. This is done to gain experience within the timeframe of the research reference. As mentioned by Chongo et al. (2018), an example of the participant-observer is the study where the researcher gains knowledge by staying in public places. Places such as transportation hubs, restaurants and online chat platforms.
On the other hand, non-participant observation is referred to as the lack of participation of the observer in the research group. Here the observer mainly detached the work and records without the interaction process. As narrated by Heskes et al. (2020), an example of a non-participant observation is when the researcher is sitting idle and do not cooperate with the research work. The researcher may be present in the workshop or in the working activity but they will not be involved or actively participate in the workshop. A non-participant observer is more effective than the participant observer because the research is less involved in this research process.
The presence of the researcher can clearly state the dimensions of the research study whereas a non-active research study brings less output. As per the view of Callaway and Sant’Anna (2021), here are the other two dimensions where the observations play an important role in completing the research study. Unstructured and structured observation implies the observational procedures to gain proper insights into the research study. The participant observations can be avoided with slight mistakes as the data are self-reported by the researcher. This shows that the researcher has sole control over the observation process.
b) Concealed versus unconcealed observation
Concealed observation is a type of qualitative research method where the researcher is hidden from the subject of the research. As per the author Correia et al. (2020), on contrary, in the unconcealed observation, the researcher is not associated with the test subjects. Concealed observation is a common method that is used in observation whereas the unconcealed method is not commonly used in the observation research procedures. The observer effect in the case of concealed observation is affected by the subject of the research. On the other hand, the observer effect in the unconcealed observation shows a major effect in the presence of a human effect. As per the view of Friedlingsteinet al. (2020), wildlife observation is one of the main examples of concealed observation. Enhancing accurate data in the concealed observation is the most suitable method or factor whereas to conduct a participant observation non-concealed observation is required.
The Hawthorne effect is an example of unconcealed observation and the concealed observation is the data collected by the salesperson of a shop. Presence of the researcher while observing the changes or trends in the marketplace is effective to state the validity of the research project. However, the unconcealed observation is reflected as obstructive where the results are not ascertained as up to the mark for the subjects who have been investigated for the research. The “researcher will often create codes that represent different types of behaviors” to make the research more effective for its users (researchgate. Net, 2022). Moreover, there are various biases that hinder the observation tools in analysing the qualitative research. Training and different courses must be provided to the researcher to gain an advantage for analyzing the correct research data. For instance, the number of agreements between the observers must be stated for a long period of time. Participant observation can reduce the occurrence of complicated results that are caused by the active observer in the workplace.
The abovementioned categories of observation for defini9ng the qualitative research show the authentic and effective data set related to the research subject. The application of different observational techniques implies exploring new segments of the research. As per the view of Yeong et al. (2018), this ensures effective results where they need to establish certain norms to complete the research. The observation results comply different participants where they need to change the data set according to the requirements. Market research can be availed to get more insights than other. In this research subjects, it can be stated that “naturalistic observation in the fact that market researchers will observe participants in their natural habitat”. If the concept is different than other measures must be adopted by the researcher to convey the actual information through the observational techniques. As there are various techniques to the observational methods it can be stated that the “Participant versus non-participant observation” is the most widely used technique for the research.
c) Participant observation as a research study to gather qualitative research
The participant observation is regarded as one of the important research methods. Hence it is recorded as the observation to integrate the methodology of qualitative research in which the researcher studies a significant group. However, it is not only integrated by using the method of observation but also participating in various activities related to it in a large manner. Beside this, it can be seen that in the research methodology of participant observation the researcher emerges in the daily activities of the participants where the objective is to record and conduct the study with the best possible setting in a useful manner. Hence it is regarded as the best possible method and research strategy which is widely used in metrology to maintain disciplines with collecting data and study groups by meeting social problems and phenomena in a huge basis. As per the integration it can be said that participant observation helps in enabling the researcher to collect both qualitative and quantitative data through the method of interview and survey with collecting the right data for one study by maintaining varied disciplines (Matey et al. 2019.)
Therefore, participant observation is also known as the type of the collecting data method by practitioners who are used in qualitative research and ethnography. Participant observer is a useful method for validity research by which researchers evaluate the study. With the help of participant observation has been able to evaluate the object of the possible setting. Disciplined observation is used by multiple forms by which the company can expand their business in a large manner. There are four steps of participant observation by which researchers can evaluate the methods of activities. Such steps are establishing the huge report to know about the people, immersing the person in the field of research, data set and observation on the data set, consolidating the gathered information. Participant observation extends the observation as well as participants in the research to understand the perspective manner. Observation method is basically known as ethnographic research which indicates the collective nouns of data to understand the social phenomena of the studies full stop hence it helps the researcher to view by understanding what people are saying in the social perspective (Chanza and Musakwa, 2022)
2 examples of research studies consisting of participant observation method
As per the study it can be integrated that the covert participant observation has been used in the 1st example related to the research of Blackpool football club supporters by Pearson's 2009(Revisesociology, 2022). In this study Pearson carried out the observation of covert participants towards the supporters of black pool football club which occurred between the year 1995 and 1998. Hence, he was known as a student to other supporters who were pursuing a degree in law but he was an academic researcher in his status. Hence, Pearson has adopted the participant observation in this research with the approach to meet up the objective of club supporters with integrating his knowledge to the world on a huge basis (Revisesociology, 2022). The researcher has applied participant observation in this reserve study in order to see and understand the people by comparing their lives and meeting the integration of club supporters with this method. The researcher has described the 78 matches where he was unable to observe the supporters outside of football context. Beside this, in this research black pool FC has been chosen by the researcher with the knowledge of the game and to integrate himself into their world (Takechi, 2018)
According to the researcher, violation of individual offenses has been avoided by making a refusal to commit crimes on a regular basis. While applying the participant observation method the researcher has committed minor offenses with committing the strategy to carry out the research with regularity and discussing about the participant fully with the activities that has been integrated within the group of football clubs (Kasranet al. 2022)
The second is particularly related with the research of an Elite High school in the United States by Khan's in the year 2014 where maturity of the research works seems to be carried out with highlighting the elite institution of poor and marginalized children.
In this research study the researcher has largely illustrated the advantages of using the overt participant observation while carrying on collecting data from the respondents in order to make the research more reliable and versatile. The research revolves around reflecting the character of American elite offering students a high-quality education in a large manner. Research of Blackpool football club supporters by Pearson's has been also discussed in the study.
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