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Healthcare policies are the reflection of a country's attitude and attention towards the overall health of the respective citizens. The healthcare policies of the country cater to the basic health-oriented needs of the people and formulate effective strategies to provide services to the people at par with the economic trend of the current society. It is important so the people can avail themselves of secured medical facilities and basic attention to their needs. However, certain biases that is still there in the society that affects the availability of such policies. The study focuses on analysing the social, political and cultural issues in the context of obesity control and risk reduction. The study further emphasises the significance of health campaigns and their consequences on healthcare demand.
1. Healthcare policy, funding and provision: Analysis
1.1 Analysis of healthcare policy formation
It should be of paramount importance that people of every section of the society be provided with standardized medical attention irrespective of any social or cultural standings. However, it is to be noted that various sections of society from different strata of society are discriminated against based on various social and cultural factors and sadly enough; also, it affects the availability of healthcare policies to the people.
The focus is at the current stage on the prioritisation of the physical activities that help people to lose weight and stop gaining also. NHS is delivering factors that are working with sharing productive information regarding health and wellness for individuals. Everyone experiences numerous obstacles and issues to supporting a healthy diet, though in the present time, people are encountering most acutely living factors in the most disadvantaged parts of the UK.
1.2 Information regarding policy formation
Obesity has marked a staggering rise over the years. 8,084 women were admitted to the hospital and were diagnosed with obesity in 2019/20. 2, 694 men were admitted for the same reason. In 2000, 21% of men and women were diagnosed with obesity 2019. 20 the share has risen to 29% of women and 27% of men (statista, 2022). These factors reflect upon the eating habits that people have picked up over the years. The UK is affected by. It is one of the major social issues that are prevalent in the society of the UK that is being altered by many individuals belonging to the demographic strata of millennials. However, this factor of obesity has mostly grasped the people of ageing between 45 to 54 years. It has been recorded that over 3000 people belonging to generation X have been admitted due to obesity in the last couple of years.
The NHS in the UK continuously plays a critical function to deliver aid with behaviour change through knowledge requirements and designing the required service. The application of these malfunctions is supporting the health sector development in the UK. For instance, opportunistic interventions, services for weight management that can control obesity, and other social defining and surgical implications in healthcare. Tackling obesity is one of the defined functions to control unwanted obesity in healthcare. The “call to action” for people to lose weight, and delivering strategies are useful to enhance the food quality and labelling by demanding eateries to put the exact amount of calories with the ingredients. NHS also delivered different advertisements that showcase how to avoid junk foods in daily life and finish dinner daily before 9 pm.
UK healthcare gives the facilities to the permanent residents of the country around 58 million people. However, for migrants accessing healthcare provisions becomes extremely problematic (Assets.ce, 2022). UK healthcare claims that healthcare coverage is free at the point of need and is paid by "general taxation". It has been seen that around 18 per cent of the income tax of citizens goes towards healthcare which is approximately 4.5 per cent of the average income of the citizen (Dentistry, 2022).
As stated by Soley-Bori et al. (2021), accessing the provisions to the healthcare of the UK is crucially important for people who are undergoing difficult situations of trauma and violence. It is surveyed by "Doctors of the world UK" that the users who have faced violence discerned their mental health to be the worst.
2.1 The impact of culture on healthcare
As far as eating habits are concerned, the cultural factor comes into play in this section. People from various sections of society tend to consume food that is rich in starch sugar and fat and is consumed daily. People belonging to the Asian groups are more susceptible to obesity and have type-2 diabetes (gov, 2022). Although people have become health conscious over time, around 12% of people consume fast food once a week. Therefore a severe reluctance is noted towards healthcare when it comes to food habits of people.
2.2 The impact of society on healthcare
Now there are various social factors at play in this situation. One is the current Covid-19 pandemic that had constricted people's lifestyles within the boundaries of their homes and most people have got adjusted to it. It has been noticed that people are 20% less active than in the 1960s (gov, 2022). The social factors are also accelerated by the trends in the consumption of food products. However, measures have been taken to combat these trends such as the controlled establishment of fast food outlets, and regulation over the addition of sugar into products.
2.3 The attitudes to healthcare
Culture is associated with a pattern of ideas, customs and behaviour which are shared by people residing within a particular society. According to Stadhouders et al. (2019) The collective impact of the culture of people upon the healthcare services is vast as there are numerous perceptions associated with the healthcare facilities being provided to the people in the society. Societal standings have a major role in the attitude of accessibility of healthcare facilities. Obesity is a major problem that is prevalent in the society that affects the functionality of the people in their daily lives.
2.4 The cultural and social impacts on healthcare in the UK
Social and cultural stigmas also play a major role when it comes to the accessibility of healthcare facilities. Many homeless people who are obese due to medical conditions do not avail proper medical facilities (Henderson et al. 2018). The obstacles of eating healthy foods instead of too much junk food made pressure in the financial condition of someone. This also ensures that the individuals need to spend more and it affects the social impacts in the society of the UK. The lack of proper documentation is one major concern in this scenario. Often homeless people are not understood properly and thus fail to get proper holistic healthcare support (healthcare, 2022). Social stigmas associated with people belonging to LGBTQ+ communities also inhibit them to avail of proper medical facilities. Therefore, it is to be noted that social and cultural factors play a major role
3.1 Healthcare policy in the practice
Over time it has been noted that there is a staggering rise in the cases of obesity in the UK. It has been recorded that over 62% of adults in the UK are above healthy weight levels. Obesity costs the entire society around 27 billion British pounds. However, government officials have been taking various measures to tackle this prevalent issue. Around 6.1 billion British pounds have been spent in the fiscal year of 2015 to combat this issue of rising obesity in the UK (gov, 2022). This reflects upon the active engagement of government policy in addressing the concerns of society. NHS has taken various measures over time to combat the issue of obesity; they have launched a three-phase plan for action from 2016 to 2019. A national food strategy has been developed in 2021.
However, in recent times tackling the issues of obesity is a prime concern which has been neglected by the UK government vehemently. The government was to spend 100 million pounds in 2021 to address the issue of obesity in the UK, 70 million pounds were to be invested into weight management services and 30 million pounds to be allocated to spread awareness and help people maintain weight (lgcplus, 2022). However, the government officials have pulled off the funding. According to Brewis et al. (2018), this will put a halt to some of the existing weight management programs which will result in restricting the ability to improve health outcomes in the various regions of the UK. The funding is pulled away at a time when obesity is still on the rise. This has affected the policies of the healthcare programs as formulated by the NHS.
3.2 Organisational involvement in healthcare
Various policies have been taken by the National health care system to address the rising concern of obesity in the UK. Since the allocation of the budget in 2015 NHS have been targeting especially the children and associated obesity of those particular demographic strata. In 2016, Childhood obesity: an action plan was formulated which was the first of the childhood obesity plans that was aimed to significantly reduce childhood obesity by the next decade (Kelishadi et al. 2018). This plan was followed in three chapters, the other two policies were laid down in 2018, which targeted to reduce obesity among the children belonging to the deprived section of the society by 2030 and in 2019 chapter 3 was launched to reiterate the promise of reduction of obesity among children. In 2020, a program was launched to tackle the issue of obesity and empower adults and children. This policy included a ban on the television marketing of junk food before 9 pm (kingsfund, 2022). In 2021, a national food strategy was developed to have a comprehensive plan for the UK's food system.
On the other hand, National health services have developed a people plan in 2021 to primarily address the issues faced by the people of the healthcare industry.
The “Health Research Authority” (HRA) in the UK is delivering support to the researchers to gather information related to the present health condition in the UK. NHS has a key role in allowing this organisation to make the required research and showcase the consequences. Information regarding the clinical trials is also useful to make decisions for other organisations in the healthcare sector (England.nhs.uk, 2022). The people plan published by the end of July 2020 along with Our People Promises built on the principle to address four specific concerns prevalent in the healthcare facilities (NHS, 2022). i) This policy aims to provide health and well-being for the people, and ii) It particularly focuses on addressing the major concern of discrimination factors in the healthcare sector. There is a major issue of discrimination based on gender still prevalent in the healthcare workforce. iii) effective usage of skills and experience of people in the task force and iv) Furthermore, employment retention strategies will be developed and staff who wants to return will be welcomed back, this policy will focus on the principles of providing flexible work hours to the people and propagate the values of culture and quality in the healthcare sector and growing the workforce which has also been a major concern in the recent times
In 2019, a survey was conducted to analyse the factors that contributed to the rise of dissatisfaction among people towards the NHS. It was revealed around 62% of people were dissatisfied with the NHS due to a lack of staff (statista, 2022). Therefore the comparison thus reflects upon the prevalent issues faced by the common people in the UK. According to van den Broek-Altenburg et al. (2022), there has been a rising issue with food habits. On the other hand, there is general concern over the staffing of the healthcare institution to cater to the needs of people, effectively and on time. These issues however are being noted and are addressed effectively by the NHS.
3.3 Healthcare delivery structure in UK
The UK has developed a government-sponsored universal healthcare facility which is termed the National Health Service (NHS). The NHS is constituted of a series of publicly funded healthcare systems in the UK. The National Healthcare Services are available in England, Wales, Scotland and Health and Social care in Northern Ireland. Citizens of the UK are entitled to their healthcare under this service, but they also have the option to buy private health insurance as well (Columbia, 2022). The NHS Plan is aimed to provide more facilities and information to patients, the people are promised to be provided with adequate healthcare staff to the people. More importantly, it aims to address the most prevalent issue that people face in recent times, that is, the inadequacy of hospital staff and thus a prolonged waiting time. NHS is working to mitigate the root of this concern by enhancing its employee retention strategy and providing the employees with a better work-life balance to ensure that they stay dedicated to the cause.
Healthcare in the different places inside the UK is a devolved subject, representing the areas “England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales”. Each of the provenances has its methods of private and public healthcare to continue delivering the medicines (Assets.ce.columbia.edu, 2022).
Overall it is to be noted that the National healthcare system follows a particular approach to address to design an effective healthcare system. The NHS is noted to follow the Beveridge model of health care system where the government pays for the facilities provided to the people, thus the services are essentially free and are effectively low in cost ensuring cost efficiency to the people.
The NHS is provided to around 60 million people. Health care is necessarily free of cost and is majorly funded by taxation. About 18% of the taxation goes towards the NHS. Overall, 8.4% of the UK's GDP is targeted for the healthcare system (Papanicolas et al. 2019). In recent studies, it has been found that the UK's healthcare system is one of the most efficient in all over the world. Under the NHS facilities, people in the rural regions are facilitated efficiently and are noted to live longer than the people residing in urban regions. Over time NHS several programs launched to target concerns of the urban section of society.
The Department of Health is established that governs the general well-being of people in England. There are various information about the recent trends of development that can be obtained from their official website.
The Primary Care Trusts of the NHS are established to improve the health and associated conditions of people in local regions. It is targeted to develop community care services. The Public Health team of the local PCT is the first point of contact for information.
The Strategic Healthcare facilities ensure national policies are being practised in local regions. It also enhances the capacity of health services and ensures the quality performance of the services being provided to people.
There are various programs developed to target the population in the rural regions as well. The countryside agency is aimed to enhance the quality of lifestyle of people residing in rural regions by providing them with quality medicinal and healthcare facilities to make their lives better (Heron et al. 2019). The Institute of Rural Health is a countrywide charity which was established in 1997. It was formed to provide the people with information, health and well-being. It focuses on three significant academic areas: evidence-based research and projects, education and training for the people to develop an effective workforce and effective analysis of the policies for the rural regions.
The Healthcare system mainly is mostly funded by the government, that is 85%, and the remaining 15% is funded by reputed private insurance companies, the most popular of them is BUPA, which is the largest health insurance company in the UK affiliated with more than 400 hospitals (Le Brocq et al. 2020). AXA, AVIVA, it is the sixth-largest insurance company in the world), Medicare international offers full coverage for the treatment of chronic diseases like asthma and diabetes and Freedom health care institution is arguably the best healthcare provider of sexual and aesthetic healthcare in the UK.
There are a set of measures taken by the NHS to combat the recent trend of obesity among children and adults alike since the UK ranks among the worst in Europe when it comes to combating the causes of obesity.
A huge gap is noticed in the obesity of children belonging to various sections of society. The gap has almost doubled between the least deprived and most deprived students within a period of a decade. According to Flint and Colosio (2022), Obesity isn't experienced equally all across and thus the supports are targeted in a particular order. Effective weight management services are provided in the primary care facilities for people who are suffering from type 2 diabetes and people who are suffering from hypertension having a BMI over 30 considering the aspects of ethnicity (Bertotti et al. 2018). The factor for an increase in developing type-2 diabetes is high for people belonging to Black, Asian and other minority groups (Higgins et al. 2019). NHS aims to formulate effective nutrition planning to govern this rising concern in society.
There are around 1.2 million full time working staff involved in the NHS as of 2021. In 2019-20 the total cost allocated for the NHS staff was 56.1 billion pounds which were about 46.6 % of the total budget allocated to the NHS. NHS over time has also taken serious measures against food consumption patterns among adults and children.
The NHS has taken steps to reduce sugar consumption through various food products. The selling of sweet beverages has been reduced from 15.7 % in July 2017 to 7.4% in June 2018 (Tronieri et al. 2019). Substantial food restrictions have been implemented on HFSS food and beverages. Along with the professional bodies and universities, research will be conducted in future to ensure the availability of proper nutritious food to the common people and people will be educated furthermore on the consumption of healthy food and its associated benefits.
3.4 The practical obstacles to the requirement of healthcare in the UK
There are various barriers to the healthcare provisions in the UK which are faced by people coming from various social backgrounds. For example, the homeless people face significant issues in availing themselves facilities for the healthcare services, the most prime of all is a lack of permanent address and poor living conditions which inhibits their access to local healthcare facilities. Uncertain immigration status is also a major concern for people who are yet to receive a particular citizenship status to avail of proper medical facilities. The language barrier is a major issue for people coming from different parts of the world. It is a major issue for immigrant people who cannot get proper services due to ineffective communication. The People belonging to marginalized sections of society and the prevalent discrimination based on sexual orientation is also a major concern in availing proper medical treatment.
Healthcare provisions are mentioned as the process inputs such as staff equipment, drugs and liquidity are combined to deliver the interventions of health. Obesity is a major problem in the UK where around 67 per cent of men, 60 per cent of women and 20 per cent of children were mentioned as obese (Gov, 2022). Administrative and legal barriers, language barriers, knowledge lack or comprehension of healthcare rights and systems and fear of being arrested are some of the practical barriers to the provisions of healthcare in the UK.
Child health: Children of the migrants who are undocumented are regarded as the UK's vulnerable groups. It is seen that half of the children do not have the proper access to healthcare including no provision of getting proper vaccinations. As opined by Atella et al. (2019), mainly the obese migrant children are refused by the UK hospitals to get the services and facilities. Along with the adults, children do not get the necessary facilities which are generally turned away from GPs because they do not have proper documents like address proof and ID.
Violence and mental health: in the UK healthcare services, many users have faced critical violence including rape, physical violence and psychological torture. The stress regarding the status of immigration, service users over the top traumatic issues also experience issues in accessing the provisions and support of the healthcare UK.
Access to prenatal care for “pregnant migrant women '': Pregnant obese women often have more complexity and are prone to multiple diseases. Migrant pregnant obese women possess high rates of mortality and ill-health in comparison to their UK peers (Oderanti and Li, 2018). Delay in prenatal care for pregnant women is extremely risky and also can be more expensive in the long run as difficulties are more likely to occur. The report by "Doctors of the world UK” has released the report after obtaining information from the pregnant service users:
Access to immediately necessary and urgent care: One of the major issues found in UK hospitals is their huge cost which often becomes problematic for many. It has been that patients were often rejected to get urgent and immediate care due to their incapability of paying. As mentioned by Jones et al. (2018), people with obesity often have the issue of emerging diseases like heart attacks, breathing problems, stroke and many more. In many hospitals in the UK, they are refused to provide the healthcare facility and services due to their incapability of spending huge amounts.
4. The role of public health and health promotion in healthcare service provision
4.1 International and national socio-political issues in promotion of public health
The socio-political context of the UK has always possessed a major control over the promotion of public health in the UK. After UK took exit from the EU, it became challenging the country to cope with the standards of health and social care within the country. It can be said that Brexit left a longstanding impact on the socio-political aspect of the UK which eventually influenced the freckle changes in the health and social care policies in the country. Similarly, it also impacted the standards of health and social care on a global scale by altering some of the crucial international policies related to obesity. During the freedom movement in the EU, about 55,000 of the workforce in the NHS came from the EU and worked in the healthcare sectors in the UK.
On the other hand, approximately 1.3 million workers in the social care sectors struggled to stay in the UK social care due to the pressure from the EU. This caused a shortfall of 5.9% of health and social care staff in the UK, eventually impacting the entire process of health promotion in the UK (Dayan et al. 2020). The estimated vacancy in the UK social and health care raised from 5.4% to 7.7% due to the leave of 300,000 workers from the UK social care services. The sudden loss of workforce in the UK health and social care appeared as a major socio-political issue in the national as well as international scale.
4.2 The impact of international campaign and national policies on healthcare demand
Health campaigns are generally structured to maximise the awareness of health dangers and to shift to the targeted audience in aiding public health. Controlling obesity is demonstrated as the top priority for the practitioners of public health in developed countries nationally and internationally. Increased obesity prevalence in the UK is the target of public health efforts. The rates of obesity are much higher in women as compared to men (Gunner et al. 2019). The main reason for the maximising rate of obesity is attributed to societal transformation leading to minimised physical activity and maximised "energy-dense foods" consumption. "Let's move" campaign in the US and "A call to action" campaign in the UK related to community-based approaches are referred to as the most significant form of interventions for international and national health campaigns respectively.
“A call to action" campaign is the new campaign introduced by the UK government for the citizens to gain healthier weight. The main purpose of the campaign is to gain millions of people who have the urge to lose weight (Oecd, 2022). The UK government is committed to the NHS to create the services of weight management for the citizens. This campaign highly supports the community-based interventions demonstrated as the strategies that involve complete communities that are conceptualised along geographic boundaries (Dyar et al. 2018). The interventions based on community generally present potential as one of the approaches to preventing the facts of obesity. Some instances of the interventions are:
The community-based approach makes sure that the available beverages and food options are quite healthy and assist the youth to eat foods that fulfil their dietary requirements. Interest in the interventions of community-based health promotions to minimise the factors of obesity is increasing with a bunch of recent activities. The national policies of the UK eventually contributed to the betterment of healthcare service in terms of tackling obesity in the country. The international campaign by Michelle Obama ensured that millions of children are getting treated in terms of obesity issues regardless of their ability to pay for the treatment.
In the US, Michelle Obama has launched a “Let's Move" campaign to reduce obesity. Through this campaign, Obama claimed that some measures for healthy food are being introduced which includes the federal government and food industry working on new labelling of packages regarding nutritional values, listing of calories on soft drinks and cans, pushing the food segments for healthy school meals (Mainous et al. 2020). The main purpose of this campaign is to reduce the facts of obesity in developing children so that they are free from obesity diseases. The administration of the US is also trying to focus more on physical exercise for the children. It is claimed by Michelle that the "childhood obesity epidemic” has tripled in the last three decades in the US which is the major reason for this campaign.
Introducing the "A call to action” campaign in the UK is getting positive with the implementation. The campaign has motivated more to create a change in behaviour to eat better and move more forward in delaying or preventing the occurrence of any serious diseases. The UK government has launched an application related to this which is aided by a 12 weeks loss plan (Gov, 2022). It is for the people who are staying with obesity to develop healthier eating habits.
During COVID-19, the UK government introduced this campaign since every individual is home-sick due to travel restrictions and the closure of all the sectors. As opined by Nyashanu et al. (2020), one of the most important things is that obese people are more motivated and encouraged to move towards a better life. It becomes crucial for the people of the UK to download this application and get the support of the application. People can get more dedicated and focus on healthy habits for better living life and promote healthier facts for a better environment (Buse et al. 2018). The campaigning program has already aided the lives of half a million people as many people have accessed the “long term” plan.
4.3 Role of Health promotion to determine the demand of healthcare services in the UK
Obesity is mentioned as a chronic health situation that increases heart disease. From the statistical report of the UK, it is demonstrated that 28 per cent of the people are classified as obese and 36 per cent are overweight (Parliament, 2022). In the UK, the prevalence of obesity has maximised steeply where most people are overweight. Obesity among people is generally reasoned by eating excessively and doing physical activities extremely less. As cited by, one of the biggest reasons found in the UK is that the obesity occurrence among the people is due to lack of exercise. On the other hand, the obesity rate among people in the US is much higher compared to the UK. It is obtained from the report that 37.9 per cent of men and 41 per cent of women are considered to be obese in the US.
Considering these facts, the US and UK government has focused on starting health campaigns to minimise the obesity rate in the country. Both the countries through their public health campaigns, “Let’s move” and “A call to action” promoted the issues of obesity and the risks associated with it. In the US, Michelle Obama has raised the issue and announced that the government is trying to balance the deadlines and meetings for the ballet and soccer which went to the drive-through because it was cheap and quick. The issues with obesity have caused people to experience certain heart diseases and other issues related to physical activities (Knai et al. 2018). The UK government has planned to ensure that the risk occurrence gets lower with the initiation of this programme and people get more conscious about it. The promotion of the obesity services in the healthcare enabled the UK health facilities to stand against the increasing volume of obesity issues within the country. Here, the health campaigns introduced by the government of the UK and the US successfully worked together to minimize the issues of obesity in an international level. The main purpose of both the US and UK governments are to make the people aware of the diseases and the necessity to take some measures and control them.
The US government has accomplished huge benefits through this programme where millions of people have shown the urge to join this campaign. The US government has summoned excessive physical activities saying that children and adults require 60 minutes of active working and playing. It is because American children invest more than 7.5 hours a day watching televisions, computers and cell phones (Parliament, 2022). They accomplished huge as more than 1 million supporters from different countries have supported them financially to take forward the program. The UK government has made an application that is feasible for the user to handle wherever they want to access. As opined by Mears et al. (2020) More than half a million people have the current access to this application which is a huge accomplishment for the UK government. The 12-week weight loss plan provides a huge benefit for users who are trying hard to minimise their obesity facts.
5.1 Identification of contemporary issues in health and social care
Obesity problem is a complicated disease comprising an enormous body fat amount. The problem of obesity is not just a cosmetic concern but also a medical issue. As mentioned by Wilding (2018), the medical issues maximise the risk of certain health problems and other diseases such as heart diseases, high blood pressure and cancers. The obesity rates have maximised in the UK since 1980 and the rise seems to continue. The 1980s and 1990s have seemed alarming in the rise of obesity across the nation where the obesity prevalence doubled and is consistent to maximise. The overall price of obesity to broader society is calculated to be 27 billion dollars (Gov, 2022). In the UK, rates of obesity are extremely high because of a reduction in physical activity and increased utilisation of private cars, a decline in the skills of home cooking and ready processed foods availability.
World Health Organisation (WHO) represents that increasing food scarcity and the cost of healthy foods have increased significantly which is a major contributor factor to obesity in developing and non-developing countries. Some of the top listed internal countries possessing high obesity risk include Nauru (61 per cent), Cook Islands (55 per cent), Palau (55 per cent) and many more (Worldpopulationreview, 2022). The rate is extremely high due to scarcity of resources and an increasing amount of unemployment.
5.2 The impact of the contemporary issues on international and national policy
In the childhood obesity plan of 2019, the UK government is highly committed to having obesity in childhood and minimising the gap in the prevalence of obesity between the least and most deprived children by 2030. The action plan is mainly focused on the soft drinks industry where the commitment of the government is on consulting regarding labelling options of food and considers including more milky drinks instead of high-calorie drinks.
In 2020, the UK government initiated the plan of “tackling obesity for empowering children and adults to live healthier lives”. Under this policy, "a call to action" for the individuals to lose weight and plans to develop the food quality. The plan claims by consulting the restaurants to put calorie labels on menus. Regulation of this plan is also committed to putting on TV advertisements promoting junk food before 9 pm. The Department of social and healthcare confirmed a 100 million fund to aid the implementation of the strategy of obesity.
The 2021 innovation and integration plan has been set for working together to develop social and healthcare for all by the UK government. The plans set out the proposals of legislation to the proposal of obesity strategy around advertising restrictions and calorie labelling the law. The strategy sets out how the Nation's healthcare system has focused more on prevention including the problem of obesity with ill health.
Considering the issue, the 2021 national food strategy has been commissioned by the environment department, Food and rural affairs which resulted in a comprehensive plan of the food system of the UK. The report underlined that children and people from poor backgrounds have the tendency to prevail more and experience the issues of obesity and hunger. This strategy calls out for the action to make sure that disadvantaged children eat well in childhood and that dealing with trades secure standards of food.
5.3 Practical responses to the contemporary health issues
Obesity-associated stigma likely impacts how obese people connect with the professionals of healthcare and access health care. Osteo Sarcopenic obesity leads to major risks of “physical disability”, “fractures' ', “insulin resistance” and “overall outcomes of health”. As cited by Turbutt et al. (2019), often the patients claim that obesity affects their mental state of mind; they are often bullied due to their excessive fat. They also claim that they are accustomed to depression over their lifetime in comparison to the people that barely struggle with obesity issues. The Michelle Obama health campaign against the issue of childhood obesity appeared as one of the favourable practical responses against this issue in the national and internal levels.
It is demonstrated that more than 40 per cent of the physicians and healthcare professionals had a negative view of obese patients. The healthcare professionals of the UK also claim that obesity prevalence is concerned with maximisation in cancer, cardiovascular diseases, joint replacement, cognitive dysfunction and many more (Jones et al. 2018). Healthcare professionals think that obesity is often life taking mostly for adults. Hence, nurses teach families and patients about the health care system, nutrition and obesity concerning the illness.
Based on the above study, it can be mentioned that obesity is an extremely crucial disease which is associated with heart attack, cardiovascular diseases and many more. The main reason for the occurrence of obesity among the people obtained from the study is less physical activities, excessive eating and an unhealthy diet. It prevails in the study that the rate of obesity is much higher in the UK, especially among women and children. In this context, the impact of obesity on the lives of people is critically discussed. A comparison of US and UK healthcare policies related to obesity is mentioned where both of them are trying to promote the benefits of reducing obesity through public health campaigns.
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