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Logistics and Supply Chain Management Assignment Sample2

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Logistics and Supply Chain Management Assignment Sample2

1. Introduction 

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Streamlining supply chain operations is the fundamental element in a business that leads to speedier output. This helps firms to compete more effectively and, as a result, produces value for the consumer base (Bowen, 2019). Organizations save money by knowing exactly where their products are in the supply chain. Making and shipping just what can be sold is facilitated by this. The primary goal of logistics in supply chain management is to improve client satisfaction by increasing the entire value of each delivery. In order to keep up a specific degree of customer service, the decrease and streamlining of human resources must be linked to the preservation of that level of service (Evans and Mason, 2018). 

There are many procedures involved in turning raw materials into finished commodities, and supply chain management is a way to keep track of them all. Active supply-side simplification is required to optimize customer value and obtain a competitive edge in the marketplace. The present report will evaluate the supply chain processes and rationalize the core aspects of the business approaches that helps in enhancing supply chain efficiency in the company context of Tesco. 

Company Background 

Tesco is one of the world's biggest food merchants, with 2,318 locations and more than 326,000 employees worldwide. One of Tesco's subsidiaries, Tesco.com, offers online services. Most of the company's business is conducted under four different brand names: "Extra," "Superstore," "Metro," and "Express" in the United Kingdom. As a major retailer in the United Kingdom, Tesco is difficult to ignore. Tesco is the largest retailer in the United Kingdom, accounting for 28.4% of total sales.

2. The process and operational delivery system that enables an organisation to deliver its service to customers


Planning is the first step in the supply chain process. When it comes to figuring out how their products and services will suit the demands of customers, businesses devise a strategy. During this phase, the primary objective should be to develop a plan that optimizes profit (Fernie and Sparks, 2018). Businesses create a strategy in place for managing the resources required to produce products and offer services. SCM relates to the planning and production of measures.


Developing or sourcing happens after the first planning stages. Supplier connections are the primary emphasis of this stage for most businesses (Khan et al., 2022). It is necessary to choose trustworthy vendors and to plan for the transportation, distribution, and payment. A product's components and services must be supported by the companies who provide them. The supply chain manager is thus responsible for ensuring that vendors are paid, delivered, and negotiated for in accordance with the agreed-upon terms (Monte, 2021). Lastly, inventory management is handled by supply chain managers by integrating all of these processes. Moving materials to the facilities as well as verifying billing.


The third phase in the supply chain management process is production. A product's distribution is coordinated during this stage. The supply chain manager plans all production, testing, packing, and delivery processes (Panwar, Pinkse and De Marchi, 2022). This is the most metric-intensive segment in the distribution chain, where enterprises may assess quality, capacity, and labour productivity.


The provider delivers the merchandise to the specified location. This is the stage when client orders are approved and deliveries are arranged (Shabbir et al., 2019). As part of the delivery phase, organizations work together to take client orders, build up a network of facilities, select transporters to transport items and create an invoicing system to collect payment.


The return is the last step in supply chain management (Shabbir et al., 2019(). The client returns faulty or damaged items to the provider. Companies must deal with client enquiries, concerns, etc. This step of the supply chain is typically challenging for many firms. Supply chain planners must find a quick and adaptable network for addressing these issues to make quick changes. 

3. Discussion on Differing Methods for Innovation, Improvement and Major Change to Enhance the Strategic Supply Chain Management to Overcome Barriers 

Tesco faced many barriers in terms of its supply chain management last winter. A pre-Christmas strike of its distribution network staff had contributed to empty shelves. The issues created consumer dissatisfaction which could be resolved by the enhanced supply chain management approaches (Tebaldi, Bigliardi and Bottani, 2018). Different innovative methods can be applied to maximize the potential of the supply chain processes that have been disrupted initially. Especially during the pandemic, when the disruptions are higher. Innovative approaches are needed. 

Previously, supply chain management was seen as a cost management job rather than a strategic activity. Nowadays, a c-suite strategy is deemed vital for sustainability (Wieland and Durach, 2021). Companies that did not prioritize supply chain management during the last two years may be losing out on material, not being able to move items from A to B, or even worse.

The shift in supply chain management also shifts the approaches and how it will be emphasized (Wieland and Durach, 2021). Organizations value data in location monitoring, stock levels, transit time, capacity, and other areas. These patterns originated during a turbulent period in operations and supply chains and are unlikely to dissipate. Industry-wide adoption of these new business and supply chain principles will certainly transform how organizations spend.

Digital Disruption 

New technology can help organizations make fast and effective choices based on changing market circumstances. Artificial intelligence, IoT, predictive analytics, and other disruptive technologies may help businesses adapt to abrupt adjustments in demand and supply patterns. Transparency, coordination, and cooperation are critical digital supply-chain investments (Wiengarten et al., 2019). To facilitate fast innovation, they must upgrade or replace their outdated ERP and supply chain systems. Collaboration throughout the supply chain is crucial for greater agility and resilience. Ensuring that employees are digitally literate is crucial to supply-chain modernization. More than half of organizations expect to spend in digital training for their personnel which can be a focal point of strategic intervention for Tesco as it will further allow the company to strengthen their SCM. The idea is to find technological solutions that are easy to use and have a low learning curve.

Events like the pandemic are no longer infrequent and unexpected (Wiengarten et al., 2019). Natural catastrophes, political upheaval, financial turmoil, and epidemics will continue to pose a significant risk to businesses. Enterprises that had built strong digital capabilities before the pandemic was more agile and resilient. A digital supply-chain revolution is now more important than ever. Any firm may benefit from assessing its supply-chain digital maturity especially a company like Tesco. 

Strategic relationship 

As the supply chain becomes more complicated, closer collaborations become vital (Wieland and Durach, 2021). Firms that engaged in long-term partner connections fared much better than those that did not. Extending transparency to partners helps build supply chain partnerships. Collaboration in innovation may also be a useful asset in a successful supply chain relationship.

Businesses increasingly embrace sustainability

Supply chain sustainability is no longer a gimmick to persuade eco-conscious customers. The supply chain is becoming a fundamental aspect of corporate management. Companies embrace sustainability initiatives to be compliant as laws clamp down on negative carbon footprints and other damaging activities (Tebaldi, Bigliardi and Bottani, 2018). But it's not only consumer demand that's pushing sustainability into supply chain management.

Today, the word sustainability includes “planet, people, and profit.” Fundamentally, corporations increasingly recognize that being ecologically and morally responsible benefits their financial line (Panwar, Pinkse and De Marchi, 2022). Newer equipment and technology frequently consume less fossil fuel, produce fewer greenhouse emissions, and have lower operating expenses. Despite the ongoing pandemic and other crises, a recent Blue Yonder research found that more than half of corporations engaged in sustainability. An earlier Blue Yonder analysis revealed one in ten corporations reduced their attention on sustainability, while the latest report shows 58 percent have invested recently (Panwar, Pinkse and De Marchi, 2022). Despite huge shortages and limits in logistics, organizations continue to seek sustainable solutions.

Legacy systems are replaced by newer technologies

Companies are spending more carefully integrating technology and are receptive to new technology in the previous two years. Today, equipment, hardware, and software are all seen differently. Robotics, driverless cars, wearables, and other technologies formerly considered only in science fiction are now commonplace in warehousing and logistics. Many were useful during periods of social distance as well as the present labour deficit. Experts say some new gear is more spectacular than beneficial (Fernie and Sparks, 2018). Legacy systems like WMS and TMS are still vital in today's processes. But they must be able to deliver real-time information. To anticipate and survive disruptions, new digital supply chains must be built on a dynamic, asset-light paradigm that puts consumers first, while also supporting environmental and social responsibility principles.

4. A critical evaluation of the issues associated and barriers and tariffs in the Competitive Market 

There are various types of issues faced by a Company when it has expanded its supply chain across the national and global market. From the many aspects, an Organization has faced some limitations or some kind of bindings. As a consequence, Tesco recently faced some issues (BBC, 2020). The political issue of Brexit has an impact on the cost of all the products of Tesco. They have fixed all the prices at a modest rate. According to the UK's biggest retailer, although certain goods have been disrupted, supply remains high, and the situation is a 'challenging, not a catastrophe.' Tesco has stated that Brexit is causing problems in the receipt of the product to Northern Ireland, particularly prepared foods and fresh produce. 

As per the evaluation of this article, it has been seen that Tesco has not faced any bigger issues in its supply chain process. Instead of all of the issues, Tesco has gained a lot of profit in the last period of the COVID-19 situation (chapman, 2021). Tesco said that it discovered labour violations in its apparel supply chain after getting evidence of widespread forced labour employing migrant women in cotton spinning mills throughout the country. Therefore, from this content, it can be said that the Company has issues in their social facts. In the supply chain system at the global level they have to maintain human rights in their labour policies (AP, 2021).

There was an attempt to hack Tesco's grocery buying website and app. An "effort to meddle with its system" left the firm's internet shopping website down for almost 40 hours late Sunday, The Stack said. This cost the corporation millions in revenue. This investigation's findings hindered Tesco's supply network.

In the cultural aspect, Tesco and a number of other foreign retailers, including Carrefour and Sephora, have taken issue with the store's failure to recognise cultural differences. It was a challenge for Tesco to keep expenses under control, give a personalised feel (The Stack, 2021), and overcome cultural barriers. In the supply chain process legally the company has faced a great lack to maintain a good relationship with the suppliers. The different perceptions can create complexity among them. For Tesco the same thing has happened in 2017 which was a major issue and it still remains in some cases.

A three-year police investigation revealed that one of Tesco's suppliers was using slave labour, which is very regretful given the retailer's proper inventory management grade from Ethical Consumer in September 2019. Due to the lack of a publicly available policy, Ethical Consumer awarded the company the least potential rating for its strategy about the use of harmful chemicals in electronic products in September 2019 (Kar, Bansal and Mishra, 2021). Tesco has made a promise to eliminate all hazardous chemical emissions by 2020, even though this promise excludes technology and instead focuses on farming, textile, and leather.

Thousands of current and past Tesco employees have prevailed in their legal battle for fair pay. The European Court of Justice has determined that employees may bring equal pay complaints for their employer-based on EU legislation. Tesco employees, the majority of whom are women (Ethical consumer, 2019), have complained that they did not get equal pay for equivalent labour with their male counterparts at the company's distribution facilities. By using ecologically friendly concepts and repurposing these efforts via change mediators, items that can be increased or reused in the current environment may be increased or repurposed. This technology enhances the development of products that may be grown and reused at the end of their useful life, so establishing a sustainable supply chain (Simpson, 2021). Sustainability is a powerful tool for businesses seeking to reduce costs and improve environmental stewardship.

5. An evaluation of the role supply chain and logistics plays within an organisation 

Tesco is the largest food retailer in the United Kingdom, generating more than €67 billion in sales for the group as a whole. Approximately 2,100 stores are operated by the company throughout the United States, central Europe, Ireland, and the Far East, with more than 2,300 stores in the United Kingdom alone. This number has increased significantly in recent years has Tesco expanded its presence in the convenience store industry with the introduction of its Tesco Express model. In recent years, the product ranges of the stores have grown substantially (Ageron, Bentahar and Gunasekaran, 2020); a larger store may now offer up to 20,000 products as Tesco strengthens its position in the 'non-food' sector, which includes electrical goods, stationery, and clothing. 

Thousands of suppliers support this extensive offering, all of whom are required to comply with authorised service criteria by delivering to Tesco within specified time 'windows'. The sheer amount of material is impressive. In a typical year, over 2.1 billion cases of product are delivered from wholesalers to retail locations. Realising its responsibilities (Ageron, Bentahar and Gunasekaran, 2020), Tesco is the market leader in the United Kingdom for the use of biofuels. The company is also dedicated to lowering its CO2 emissions per case supplied via programmes such as rail, barge, and alternative energy sources. The company also acquires a large number of double-deck trucks in order to carry more cases on each journey. 

Many small storage facilities with limited thermal management abilities have been replaced by large Fresh Food storage facilities that can handle a broad range of goods at a range of climates. One option would be to provide a daily delivery service to all merchants at a competitive charge (Kouhizadeh, Saberi and Sarkis, 2021). Delivery trucks for Fresh Food depots are insulated trailers with adjustable bulkheads that enable them to function in a variety of temperature ranges, including freezing. 

Deliveries are made in accordance with the timetables that have been agreed upon. Canned goods and clothing are provided separately from the food items on the truck. That brings us to the end of the process for getting things from the supplier to the store. Today, with such a diverse product range, it is impossible for a single merchant to repurchase the whole array of products (store-based ordering). Instead, sales of each product line are continuously recorded at the till using electronic point of sale (EPOS) devices, which are connected to the internet. "We strive to provide value to our customers in order to earn their lifetime commitment," the company's mission statement states. Loyalty is an important idea that we shall discuss in more depth in the next chapter. Tesco must first discover customer needs and then figure out how to meet those needs in order to gain their loyalty. Its products must be seen as offering outstanding value for money by its target customers. 

At order to achieve these objectives, it must ensure that the commodities wanted by its customers are always available on the shelf in each of its locations, at all times of the day and night (Kar, Bansal and Mishra, 2021). Tesco's logistics department is in charge of the planning and control of the large product diversity available from vendors to stores. The logistical duty of regulating the flow of materials and information is crucial to the overall success of supply chain management. Supply chain management is required for the success of the whole process chain, from raw material acquisition through manufacture, packing, and delivery to the ultimate customer. It is also known as supply chain logistics.

6. Conclusion 

The fundamental distinction between logistics and supply chain management is that logistics management is primarily concerned with the assimilation and upkeep of goods within an organisation, so although supply chain is concerned with the structures and control of a group's distribution networks in Tesco. In this regard, this particular report has covered up the barriers and issues that have been faced by the company. As a result of the evaluation, it has been determined that Deliveries are made in line with the timeframes agreed upon. On the truck, canned goods and clothes are distributed separately from the food supplies. This concludes the process of transferring goods from the supplier to the shop.

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