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Understanding of a customer consists points like- a service provider must learn everything about the customers which includes their requirements and demands, their obstacles, including their present experiences receiving through the particular in order to enhance the quality to meet up to the expectations of the customer or consumer, which includes three ways to attain a proper understanding (Shahab, Ghazali and Mohtar, 2021). Skills like Active listening skills as customers can vary with their needs and demands which is very obvious in nature, and for understanding the expectations of a customer from a service is very crucial task for providing maximum output. Characterize the needs through the medium of proper research, and compile the inputs that stand for different prospects of consumers which will enhance interest to avail the services for them. Empathy is most vital point in the process of understanding customer which needs mapping their path of experience derived from the particular product or service. The approaches mentioned above need proper execution, as these are the primary steps build an understanding.
The general meaning of consumption is satisfying the demands and needs, as the notion behind this that the requirements must be fulfilled, as it will emerge as a source of pleasure. Consumption is directly linked with the economic and social factors which put an emphasis on time and space, relying on demands, needs wants and desires. On other hand, “consumption is formed by purchasing decision of consumers, is a process that combine behaviors in order to utilize economic goods.”
There are various types of consumption which include conspicuous, symbolic, addictive, compulsive and sacred consumption.
Conspicuous type of Consumption
According to this customer meet up their primary psychological and needs of security by consumption of services and products available in the market. Sometimes, people try to showcase their financial strength, class and status which generate fluctuation in case of demands and needs.
Consumption on a symbolic basis
It consists of assessment of such products which have great symbolic brand value which enhance the consumption of products or goods. In easy words, “luxury products are not consumed physically, and core products become of secondary importance; image is consumed instead.” This kind of goods and services basically put a spot light on the social class and life style of a customer.
Usually, the word addiction is associated with intoxicating substances such as liquor, drugs, nicotine, etc, but anything that fulfills the physiological and psychological needs and creates a dependency on it, and consumer is ready to pay a great value for the service shows their level of addiction.
Customer behavior puts an impact on their decisions, activities, ideas or experiences which satisfies customer requirements and needs. It is directly linked every activity like choosing, obtaining and abounding any product, service it includes the decision-making procedure. It is one of the concerned topics to be researched in the field of marketing and tourism, with the terms “travel behavior” or “tourist behavior” (Belur et al, 2021). The research includes: the ability of decision making, values, points of motivation, self-concept of individual regarding the service and personality, expectations of an individual, attitude, perception, satisfaction and factors like trust and loyalty. Apprehension of customer decision making is a foundation stone of marketing strategy. In case tourism it is reinforced by general assumptions regarding decisions are made by the customers.
Customer involvement is that situation when there is a motivating mind set for making a purchase of any service, or the significance a customer puts on the good or service. There are various factors in influencing the involvement of the customer. First stage where there is low involvement of a customer which includes such decisions which are made due to habit, generally in this case the customer does not go for researching about the products and services (Bigby et al, 2019). Secondly there is medium involvement by a customer which is regarded as simple decision which is mainly made in store and does not need much time involvement. Lastly, the products and services need high involvement in which a customer have spend a lot of time and research before making any kind of decision, as it indulges expenditure of a huge amount of money. For instance- purchase of jewelry, vacations, vehicles, or place of accommodation which involves a great amount of risk within it.
Perceptual process includes series of steps a customer go through while classifying and responding towards the environment faced (Filieri et al, 2018).
“Exposure to stimuli”- We receive our senses from different receptors such as sound conveyed by ears, sight which is conveyed by eyes, smell by nose, texture by skin, and taste by tongue. All this can be triggered by a service provider while sending their message to the customers, as they become a medium of communication.
“Attention Stage”- This stage includes factors like – selective exposure, salience, selective retention, perceptual defense, perceptual vigilance,
Stage of interpretation – Includes principle of closure, principle of similarity, principle of proximity, and schemata.
Stage of response- It related to ones reaction when exposed to a particular situation which includes sensory adaptation.
In simple words the procedure used in this process is to navigate the global view surrounded to everyone, which is never ending (Li et al, 2019). It pass through a filter of the required and non- required stuffs, which assist a customer to know much more regarding their likes and dislikes.
Consumer society is referred to an atmosphere where customers purchase new goods, which places enhance the value on purchasing goods (Humbani and Wiese, 2018). As, the consumer is the one who pays for the services enjoyed by them, which means they have a active role to play in the economic strata of the nation. In lack of there growing and changing nature in demands the producer would lack motivation in showing their creativity while introducing new services in the market (McCollough, 2020). Society plays a vital role in case of demands and supply as humans are considered as social animals and we easily get influenced by various factors of society like
Reference groups – As every person has some one as a role model in their life which becomes an influencing part for them, and in reference groups there are number of people that individuals compare themselves with. It can include people from group like- friends, family, co workers, and relatives at a primary level.
Role in society- Every individual plays several roles in society which differs as their association or company they belong to, which vary there buying or purchasing wants in the market. For example a person can be at a higher authority in an organization, the same person can be someone’s husband or father at a same time so the purchase of goods will definitely change while purchasing of goods regarding to their role performed in the social strata.
Social status- Customers belonging to higher classes will definitely go for a purchase of luxurious goods to maintain their class in society where as people belonging to middle and lower class they will go for a purchase of those goods which are essential for their survival.
Due to emergence of pandemic marketers are trying to induce their creative and flexible approaches in their business for highlighting their business more in the market for earning more profits(MCDERMOTT, 2017).
Due to emergence of pandemic many things have changed in which the procedure of shopping has also molded itself as per the demand of the situation like online shopping has helped a lot in enhancing the profits and even more preferred than normal offline stores available in the market. Starting from dresses, foot wear, jewelries or groceries. Although there are still some percent of people who believe in going to shops to examine the quality of the product they are purchasing.
Popular brands need to get creative as the scenario of health crises has come up with the factor of social distancing for precautions. Due to which many restaurants, malls and many other industry had faced losses and for fixing the losses they need to merge themselves on online platform for availing their services.
Further trends counting in the list are home is becoming the main hub for almost for everything, loyalty is not given; customers want value in more way than one. All these things are changing factor in case of demand and supply of goods and services.
For the above discussion it is to be concluded that understanding of a customer consists points like- a service provider must learn everything about the customers which includes their requirements and demands, their obstacles, including their present experiences receiving through the particular in order to enhance the quality to meet up to the expectations of the customer or consumer, which includes three ways to attain a proper understanding. Skills like- active listening, characterizing, and dealing in a empathetic manner. The study also includes points like contemporary perspectives on consumption and its sub points describing its importance, individual decision making, importance of perceptual processes in understanding individual consumers, consumers in society (Groups and Social Processes), and lastly the impact of future trends in consumer behavior. All the mentioned points helps to grow the knowledge regarding understanding a customer.
Belur, J., Tompson, L., Thornton, A. and Simon, M., 2021. Interrater reliability in systematic review methodology: exploring variation in coder decision-making. Sociological methods & research, 50(2), pp.837-865.
Bigby, C., Whiteside, M. and Douglas, J., 2019. Providing support for decision making to adults with intellectual disability: Perspectives of family members and workers in disability support services. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 44(4), pp.396-409.
Filieri, R., McLeay, F., Tsui, B. and Lin, Z., 2018. Consumer perceptions of information helpfulness and determinants of purchase intention in online consumer reviews of services. Information & Management, 55(8), pp.956-970.
Humbani, M. and Wiese, M., 2018. A cashless society for all: Determining consumers’ readiness to adopt mobile payment services. Journal of African Business, 19(3), pp.409-429.
Li, Z., Sha, Y., Song, X., Yang, K., ZHao, K., Jiang, Z. and Zhang, Q., 2019. Impact of risk perception on customer purchase behavior: a meta-analysis. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing.
McCollough, J., 2020. The impact of consumers' time constraint and conspicuous consumption behaviour on the throwaway society. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 44(1), pp.33-43.
MCDERMOTT, K., 2017. Future trends in consumer behavior. Saatavissa: https://www. acapture. com/wpcontent/uploads/2017/03/Future-trends-in-consumer-behavior. pdf. Viitattu, 27, p.2017.
Shahab, M.H., Ghazali, E. and Mohtar, M., 2021. The role of elaboration likelihood model in consumer behaviour research and its extension to new technologies: A review and future research agenda. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 45(4), pp.664-689.
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